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    • The Internal-International Migration Nexus: What Links?
      QUERY The Internal-International Migration Nexus: What Links? Please respond by January 30, 2016: gym2013unesco@gmail.com Internal and international migration have significant consequences for poverty and development, yet the two fields of enquiry are rarely linked. Internal and international migrants have been placed under different spheres of administrative governance, reinforcing their separation in research and in policy-making. International migration has attracted vast political attention, mainly due to the conflict over state sovereignty and responsibility to assist and protect different categories of international migrants. On the contrary, despite being numerically more significant than international migration, matters of internal migration are rarely included in the political agenda. Both internal and international migration, and the relationship between the two, raise similar questions on the migration-development nexus such as impact of migrants on sending and receiving economies, benefits of financial and social remittances, social and civic inclusion/exclusion in the receiving place, and language barriers. The link between internal and international migration however is not a linear one. Most research efforts tend to merge the two fields by incorporating internal migration studies within international migration theories. The link between the two is complex, and further studies are needed to unravel the dynamics underneath. The Internal-International Migration Nexus: What Links? hopes to shed light on the complexities of the internal-international migration nexus. Development practitioners with experience and knowledge on the link between these two types of mobility are kindly requested to respond to the following questions with plausible examples, wherever applicable: 1. How does international migration influence/shape internal migration, and vice versa? Considering the limited research available on the link between internal and international migration, this question seeks to document the current status of research and data on the topic. Please provide country specific information and data sources. 2. Has the link between internal and international migration influenced policy making? Please cite examples mentioning the countries. Additionally, please draw attention to any resource/research materials available on the topic. Your responses will support UNESCO in planning and organizing a regional workshop focusing on the internal and international migration links. The Consolidated Reply, duly acknowledging your contribution, will also be shared through our networks including the GYM website, and the GYM mailing list of experts. To respond to this query, please write to: gym2013unesco@gmail.com We look forward to your valuable contributions and an engaging discussion. Marina Faetanini On behalf of GYM Team UNESCO New Delhi Office
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    • 3 years ago

       GYM

    • The Right To Education for Migrant Children:Policy Recommendations and Best Practices

      Consolidated Reply - Right to Education for Migrant Children: Policy Recommendations and Best Practices

      Children are the most unrecognized and vulnerable groups among internal migrants, migrating alone or with their families. Migrant children often lose access to basic entitlements, miss out on schooling and are subject to health and security risks. Child migrants forgo critical inputs necessary for their physical, psychological and intellectual development during their formative years. This has an irreversible impact on their emotional and cognitive development.

      Migrant children – currently estimated at 15 million (Daniel 2011; Smita 2011) - are among the most educationally marginalized in India. More than 5 years after the promulgation of the act, the right to education (under the Right to Education Act, [RTE] 2009) of migrant children still remains highly compromised:  seasonal and temporary migration results in disruption of regular and continued schooling of children, adversely affecting their human capital formation and contributing to the inter-generational transmission of poverty. Why is education critical to the issue of distress seasonal migration? Because the window of opportunity that children of migrant families have is very small. They get drawn into labour early, and are usually full-fledged labourers by the age of 11 or 12. They face a life of hardship and a sense of displacement right from infancy. They are subjected to hazardous travel between villages and work sites, and a life of severe depravation at the latter. Girl children endure many more deprivations than boys. They receive less nutrition and less care than boys, and often have to do double the work, at work sites as well as at home (Smita 2007. Locked Homes, Empty Schools – the Impact of Distress Seasonal Migration on the Rural Poor).  Query: Policy Recommendations and Best Practices to Ensure Right to Education for Migrant Children In the context of the current consultations for a New Education Policy (NEP) and the current negotiations on labour reforms, it is of vital importance for migrating children that their specific needs are understood, addressed and incorporated into a coherent policy discourse. We are therefore encouraging development practitioners, education experts and policy makers to respond with their research or/and field experiences to suggest tangible policy recommendations and share best practices on How to Ensure the Right to Education for Migrant Children.  The Consolidated Reply, based on all responses received, will be distributed during the National Consultation on Children and Internal Migration in India, co-organized by Aide et Action and UNESCO with the support of the Bernard van Leer Foundation, on 22-23 September 2015 in New Delhi. The Consolidated Reply, duly acknowledging your contribution, will also be shared through our networks, websites and GYM mailing list of experts. We look forward to an engaging discussion and concrete examples. To respond please write to: gym2013unesco@gmail.com. You can also log on to our portal and submit your responses under the discussion forum at http://www.solutionexchange-un-gengym.net/ With thanks and appreciation Marina Faetanini UNESCO GYM Team
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    • 3 years, 4 months ago

       GYM

    • Domestic Remittances in India: Estimates and Uses? Examples and Advice.
      Domestic Remittances in India-Estimates and Uses In 2011, UNESCO launched the Internal Migration in India Initiative (IMII), in order to better respond to the many challenges raised by the internal migration phenomenon in India and to support the social inclusion of migrants in the economic, social, political and cultural life of the country using a three-legged approach, combining research, policy advocacy and capacity building. Internal migration in India accounts for a large population currently estimated at approximately 400 million, or nearly 30 percent of the total population. The constraints faced by seasonal migrants in particular (estimated at 100 million) are many – lack of formal residency rights; lack of identity proof; lack of political representation; inadequate housing; low paid, insecure or hazardous work; extreme vulnerability of women and children to trafficking and sexual exploitation; exclusion from state-provided services and entitlements such as health and education; inability to access banking facilities; and discrimination based on ethnicity, religion, class or gender. It is acknowledged that most migrants are unable to access banking facilities since they cannot provide a proof of identity and of formal residency that are necessary to fulfil the Know Your Customer (KYC) requirements of banks. Such an exclusion from formal banking facilities pushes migrants to use informal networks to remit money to families left behind. These informal networks are not reliable and costlier, both in money and time (IFRM, 2011). It is currently estimated that 70% - of the 10 billion USD domestic remittances - are channeled through informal networks (Tumbe, 2011). Such barriers to financial inclusion can clearly hinder the potential impact of domestic remittances on developmental goals.

      The query Domestic remittances in India: Estimates and Uses?Examples and Advice hopes to shed light on the internal migration-developmental goals nexus. Development practitioners with experience and knowledge on migration, remittances and related issues are kindly requested to respond to the following questions with plausible examples, wherever applicable:

      1. What are the current estimates of domestic remittances in India? Data, gaps and recommendations In view of the limited research available on domestic remittances, this question seeks to document the current status of research and data on domestic remittances in India, including on the estimated overall amount that is sent each year in India by internal migrants, and the geography of domestic remittances (i.e. to which States and to what kind of households these specific financial flows are directed).  Please provide data sources; indicate gaps, and suggest tangible recommendations that can help improve the database on domestic remittances. 2. How are migrants using domestic remittances? This question seeks to document current data, research and examples on the use of domestic remittances in India: (i) precisely to ascertain the extent to which remittances are used for either consumption, education, health, marriage, housing, investment or other purposes like climate change adaptation? and (ii) to highlight the role of both men and women, of the family and the community in the decision making process of using the remittances? 3. What is the impact of remittances on poor households? Are migrants able to diversify remittances from use in consumption to more productive or entrepreneurial uses? Do savings become possible with regular remittances? This question seeks to understand the impact of remittances in areas of high poverty concentration such as Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Odisha, Bihar, Jharkhand, Bengal, or Rajasthan, among others. Examples from other countries in the field of domestic remittances or from the field of international remittances are welcome. UNESCO will share on its network the Consolidated Report of the query and duly acknowledge the significant contributions made during this discussion. The results of the query will support development practitioners in their efforts to advocate for a better inclusion of internal migrants in society, including financial, for the benefit of all; will highlight research and policy gaps as well as statistical gaps; strengthen recognition of the importance and role of internal migrants’ contribution to GDP. We look forward to an engaging discussion and concrete examples. To respond please write to: se-gen_gym@solutionexchange-un.net.in. Marina Faetanini On behalf of GYM Team UNESCO New Delhi Office
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    • 3 years, 6 months ago

       GYM

    • Understanding migration and global environmental change nexus in India
      We are starting with our first discussion on GYM. We are pleased that Ms. Vandana Aggarwal, Economic advisor, MoEF-GoI is initiating a policy relevant discussion on " Understanding migration and global environmental change nexus in India ". This will also feed into a workshop being organised by UNESCO, the UK Government Office for Science (GOS) and the UK Department for International Development (DFID)  on 4-5 March 2014. We invite all practitioners, experts, policy makers working in this field to take active part in the discussion. The query is simultaneously inviting comments from the Gender Community and Climate Change Community of UN Solution Exchange. Thank you, Marina Faetanini (UNESCO) & Malika Basu (Gender Community).
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    • 4 years, 10 months ago

       GYM