Books and Articles

A City of Two Tales: Shelter and Migrants in Surabaya
Paper by Ashok Das, Environment and Urbanisation ASIA, National Institute of Urban Affairs (NIUA), SAGE Publications, 2017.
Accessed on May 17, 2017
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This paper describes shelter and related deprivations that poor migrants to Surabaya, Indonesia, endure.
Keywords: Migrants, squatters, shelter, upgrading, Surabaya, Indonesia

A Review of Internal and Regional Migration Policy in South-east Asia
Working paper by Maureen Hickey, Pitra Narendra and Katie Rainwater, 2013. Accessed on September 14, 2015
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This working paper offers a review and comprehensive analysis of the migration policies in South-east Asian countries, on regional and national level.
Keywords: internal migration, regional migration, South-east Asia, migration policy.

A ‘State Of Exception’ and Beyond: Issues and Perspectives in Forced Migration in South Asia
Special Issue edited by Dr. Nasreen Chowdhory; The International Journal of Migration and Border Studies, Volume 2, No.2, May 2016
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The issue focuses on forced migration and population displacements in South Asia over the years.
Keywords: forced migration, displacement, refugees, Asia, gender, camps

Addressing Climate Change and Migration in Asia and the Pacific
Report by Asian Development Bank, 2012. Accessed on June 13, 2014
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Presents a detailed picture of the potential impacts of climate change on migration in Asia and the Pacific; and suggests that climate-induced migration should be seen not only as a threat to human well-being but also as a potential tool to promote human adaptation to climate change.
Keywords: climate change, policy

An Analysis of ‘Migrant-intensity’ in India and Indonesia: Seeing Internal Migration Patterns through a Place-based Lens
Article by Gregory F. Randolph, Mukta Naik, Environment and Urbanization Asia, 8(1), p. 40–58, National Institute of Urban Affairs (NIUA), SAGE Publications, 2017. Accessed on May 17, 2017.
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This paper introduces the concept of ‘migrant-intensity’ as an empirical way of understanding the places that experience migration in the most profound and transformative ways—where the challenges and opportunities inherent in transience and mobility are most apparent. Analyzing census data from India and Indonesia.
Keywords: Multiculturalism directions, multicultural community, Seoul, social survey, migration and social mobility

Asia-Pacific Migration Report 2015: Migrants’ Contributions to Development
Report by the Asia-Pacific Regional Thematic Working Group on International Migration, 2016. Accessed on April 2016
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This report provides an insight into how labour migration, the dominant migration trend in the Asia-Pacific region, can contribute to development in countries of origin and destination in the Asia-Pacific region. 
Keywords: migration, labour, Asia-Pacific

Asian Labour Migration: Issues and Challenges in an Era of Globalization
Working Paper; by Piyasiri Wickramasekera; International Migration Papers, No. 57; ILO, August 2002. Accessed on December 17, 2013
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This paper discusses problems with current terminology and examines some popular myths about migrant workers.
Keywords: labour, poverty, policy effects

Assessing the Climate Change Environmental Degradation and Migration Nexus in South Asia
Report by International Organization for Migration (IOM), 2016. Accessed on February 2, 2017
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This study provides an overview of the nexus of climate change, environmental degradation and migration in Bangladesh, Maldives and Nepal.
Keywords: climate change, South Asia, Bangladesh, Maldives, Nepal

Assessing the Evidence: Environment, Climate Change and Migration in Bangladesh
Report by International Organization for Migration (IOM), 2010. Accessed on September 25, 2017
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The study brings together existing evidence on the climate change, environment and migration nexus in Bangladesh. The evidence in the document comes from a wide variety of sources and studies, including Government of Bangladesh statistics and policy documents, academic research, working papers and other publications and research carried out by national, bilateral and multilateral organizations, NGOs and research institutions.
Keywords: climate change, Bangladesh

Bed and Board in lieu of Salary: Women and Girl Children Domestics in Post Partition Calcutta (1951- 1981)
Working Paper; by Deepita Chakravarty and Ishita Chakravarty; Centre for Economic and Social Studies (CESS), Working Paper 84, 2010. Accessed on December 17, 2013
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This paper attempts to see how a particular labour market, i.e. domestic service, a traditionally male domain, became segregated both by gender and age in post partition West Bengal and mainly in its capital city Calcutta.
Keywords: gender, rural to urban, labour, scheduled tribes, mobility

Borders in the South: Migration News in South Asia and the Pacific
Paper by Jahnnabi Das & Akhteruz Zaman; Global Media Journal, 2016. Accessed on August 31, 2017
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This paper is a study the coverage of migration issues in six prominent English-language newspapers from six countries (Australia, Bangladesh, India, New Zealand, Pakistan and Sri Lanka) over a four-month period in
2014. The study utilizes an exploratory frame analysis to determine whether, in line with several earlier studies, issues of migration are depicted as a crisis to be managed in the receiving countries. Moreover, it also examines the emphasis attached to the subject matter by the source countries’ media.
Keywords: news, media, journalism, South Asia

Brokered livelihoods: Debt, Labour Migration and Development in Tribal Western India
Article by David Mosse, Sanjeev Gupta, Mona Mehta and Julia F. Rees; The Journal of Development Studies, Volume 38, Issue 5, Routledge, 2002
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The social experience and consequences of migration are far from uniform, but shaped by class and gender. This study shows that the forces leading to migration are as much to do with the social relations of dependency and indebtedness which subsistence failure entails, as with ecological decline.
Keywords: Climate change, forced migration, culture, poverty

Bypassing the Squalor: New Towns, Immaterial Labour and Exclusion in Post-colonial Urbanisation
Article by Rajesh Bhattacharya and Kalyan Sanyal in Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 46, Issue No.31, July 30, EPW Foundation, 2011
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Discusses how the condition of post-coloniality, characterised by capital and its wasteland, manifests itself in the new towns as the slow but inevitable encroachment of the excluded population on these new zones of exclusivity.
Keywords: urbanisation, mobility, development

Caste, Land, and Migration: A Preliminary Analysis of a Village Survey in an Underdeveloped State in India
Discussion Paper by Yuko Tsujita, Hisaya Oda in Institute of Development Economics (IDE) Discussion Papers, No. 334, September 2012
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This paper explores migration from Bihar by paying particular attention to social class (caste) and landholding.
Keywords: scheduled castes, minorities, culture, poverty

Changing Pattern of Internal Migration in India: Some Evidences from Census Data
International Journal of Current Research, Vol. 33, Issue, 4, pp.289-295, April, 2011.
Research article by Vipul Kant Singh, Alok Kumar, R.D. Singh1 and K.N.S. Yadava, 2011. Accessed on October 21, 2015.
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This article examines the change in internal migration patterns between the major Indian states in the last two decades.
Keywords: Internal migration, India, census, mobility

Children’s Agency, Autonomy and Migration
Paper by Ann Whitehead; National Workshop on Internal Migration and Human Development in India, 6-7 December 2011, Workshop Compendium, Vol. 2, Workshop Papers, UNESCO/ UNICEF, 2012
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This paper focuses on those children who have migrated without parents or guardians or have moved to live without parents or guardians.
Keywords: poverty, labour, children, forced migration

Circular Migration and Localized Urbanization in Rural India
Article by Soundarya Iyer, Environment and Urbanization Asia, 8(1), p. 105-119, National Institute of Urban Affairs (NIUA), SAGE Publications, 2017. Accessed on May 17, 2017.
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This article makes a case for studying the source of migration and the role that circular migration plays in processes of urbanization at the source of migration, particularly in the context of the growing urbanization away from cities in India.
Keywords: Circular migration, urbanization, dryland, Karnataka, India

Circular Migration and Multilocal Livelihood Strategies in Rural India
Book by Priya Deshingkar and John Farrington, Oxford University Press, India, 2009
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Circular migration has become the enduring mobility pattern of the poor in agriculturally marginal areas of India. This volume deals with millions of unskilled and semiskilled poor who migrate away from the rural region in search of jobs that are mostly in the informal organized sector.
Keywords: circular, poverty, labour

Cities Welcoming Refugees and Migrants
Report by UNESCO, 2016. Accessed on January 10, 2017.
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The review covers a broad range of research reports, articles, policy briefs, case study findings and other documents, and reflects a large part of the available international literature covering the experience of cities and migration. It presents a range of thematic and organizational approaches to city governance on migration and refugees. The review identifies values and principles, policy approaches, and specific tasks and responsibilities of cities welcoming migrants and refugees.
Keywords: refugees, social inclusion, human rights

Climate Change and Migration: A Case Study from Rural Bangladesh
Paper by Katha Kartiki, Gender & Development, 2011. Accessed on 25 October 2016.
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This article focuses on people’s movements in the aftermath of cyclone Aila. It looks at factors influencing migration in five coastal villages in Bangladesh, and their migration experience.
Keywords: climate change, Bangladesh

Climate Change and Migration. Exploring the Linkage and what needs to be done in the context of Pakistan
Series on Vulnerability and Resilience.
Research paper by Adnan Sattar, 2014. Accessed on October 21, 2015.
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This paper examines the vulnerability to a host of climate induced hazards and suggests measures to build resilience against them.
Keywords: Climate change, migration, Pakistan

Climate Change and Natural Disasters Affecting Women Peace and Security
Final report by Asia Pacific Forum on Women, Law and Development (APWLD), 2013. Accessed on September 11, 2015
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This paper explores the relation between climate change and (internal and external) migration, in the South-Pacific region. It particularly focuses on the impact of climate change and national responses on women, peace and security, providing policy recommendations.
Keywords: Climate change, natural disasters, internal displacement, emigration, women, Asia-Pacific region

Climate Change, Environmental Degradation and Migration
International Dialogue on Migration, No. 18
Report by International Organization for Migration (IOM), 2012. Accessed on October 20, 2015.
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This paper reviews the content of the IOM workshop on “Climate Change, Environmental Degradation and Migration” (Geneva, 29-30 March 2011), focusing on issues linked to environmental migration, such as capacities for research, to build a solid legal framework, comprehensive migration management policies and to ensure technical and operational support for environmental migrants.

Keywords: climate change, environment, migration

Climate Change Knows No Borders
Report by CANSA, Bread for the World and ActionAid, 2016. Accessed on January 9, 2017.
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This study looks at climate change and its impacts on migration in South Asia, and particularly in Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka.
Keywords: climate change, environmental migration, South Asia, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka

Climate Change, Migration and Critical International Security Considerations
Migration Research Series No. 42
Report by International Organization for Migration (IOM), 2015. Accessed on October 20, 2015.
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This paper reviews the available scholarly reporting on climate change, migration and security and describes the legal and policy challenges facing the international community.
Keywords: climate change, migration, security, policy

Climate Variability and Internal Migration: A Test on Indian Inter-StateMigration
Working paper by Ingrid Dallmann and Katrin Millock; Centre d’Economie de la Sorbonne (CES) Working Papers no. 45, May 2013 accessed on December 17, 2013
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The authors match migration data from the Indian census with climate data to test the hypothesis of climate variability as a push factor for internal migration. The main contribution of the analysis is to introduce relevant meteorological indicators of climate variability, based on the standardized precipitation index. The effect is significant for both male and female migration rates. Drought duration and magnitude as well as flood events are never statistically significant.
Keywords: climate change, forced migration, poverty, data

Clouds gather in the sky, but no rain falls. Vulnerability to rainfall variability and food insecurity in Northern Bangladesh and its effects on migration
Paper by Benjamin Etzold, Ahsan Uddin Ahmed, Selim Reza Hassan & Sharmind Neelormi; Climate and Development, 2014. Accessed on 25 October 2016.
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This article presents empirical evidence on changing rainfall patterns in Kurigram district in northern Bangladesh, on the local people’s perception of these changes, and on their decision to migrate, or not, in order to cope with rainfall variability and food insecurity. The authors conclude that, instead of climate change, social inequality and food insecurity as well as structural economic differences are the strongest drivers of migration inside Bangladesh.
Keywords: climate change, Bangladesh

Conceptual Issues in Measurement of Internal Migration in India
Paper by R. B. Bhagat; Working Paper Presented in XXVth IUSSP International Conference held in Tours, France, 18-23 July 2005
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This paper examines the two national sources of data on internal migration related to definitions of migrants, duration of migration, streams and reasons of migration.
Keywords: seasonal, culture, conflict, forced migration

Consolidated Reply for Query on Domestic Remittances in India: Estimates and Uses?
Compiled by Malika Basu and Marina Faetanini; August 2015
To read the full consolidated reply; click here

Consolidated Reply for Query on Inputs for Research in Urbanization-Migration Nexus in South Asia-Examples;Referrals
Compiled by Warisha Yunus and Malika Basu; December 2014
To read the full consolidated reply; click here

Consolidated Reply for Query on Safe Migration and Prevention of Trafficking to Combat Forced Labour- Examples and Referrals
Compiled by Warisha Yunus and Malika Basu; February 2015
To read the full consolidated reply; click here

Consolidated Reply for Query on Social Security and Policy Framework for Internal Migrants In India-Examples;Advice
Compiled by Warisha Yunus; October 2014
To read the full consolidated reply; click here

Consolidated Reply for Query on Right to Education for Migrant Children: Policy Recommendations and Best Practices
Compiled by  Malika Basu and Marina Faetanini; November 2015
To read the full consolidated reply; click here

Consolidated Reply for Query on Understanding Migration and Global Environmental Change Nexus in India; Advice
Compiled by Ramesh Jalan and Malika Basu; March 2014
To read the full consolidated reply; click here

Consolidated Reply for Query on Using Social Media Online Platforms to Facilitate a Discourse on Youth Perspectives on Development 
Compiled by Gender Community Blog – UN Solution Exchange India; May 2014
To read the full consolidated reply; click here

Creative Practices and Policies for Better Inclusion of Migrant Workers: the Experience of Aajeevika Bureau
Paper by Rajiv Khandelwal, Amrita Sharma and Divya Varma, National Workshop on Internal Migration and Human Development in India, 6-7 December 2011, Workshop Compendium, Vol. 2, Workshop Papers, UNESCO/ UNICEF, 2012
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This paper reviews the experiences and impact of the work done by Aajeevika Bureau, a public service organization in western India, which has initiated an informed discourse on migration by way of demonstrating scalable models.
Keywords: urbanisation, portability of rights, poverty, rural to urban, policy effects

Cross National Comparisons of Internal Migration: An Update on Global Patters and Trends
Technical paper by Martin Bell and Elin Charles-Edwards; UNDESA Population Division, Technical Paper 2013/1, 2013 accessed on October 2, 2013
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This paper updates and extends previous work by Bell and Muhidin (2009), to measure and analyze levels and trends in the intensity and spatial impact of internal migration based on census data from the 1990, 2000 and 2010 rounds of census.
Keywords: rural to urban, urban to rural, policy effects

Current State of Research on Social Inclusion in Asia and the Pacific: Focus on Ageing, Gender and Social Innovation
Report by Theresa W. Devasahayam. Contributing Authors: Juhua Yang; Aliya Ilyassova; Vijay Naidu; Lekha Subaiya. 2017
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This UNESCO MOST Paper serves as background research for the MOST Forum of Ministers of Social Development for the Asia-Pacific Region in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (20-23 March 2017). It provides a review and analysis of the current state of research on ageing, gender and social inclusion in the five sub-regions of the Asia Pacific.
Keywords: social inclusion, social innovation, ageing, gender

Decent Work Country Programmes and Human Mobility
Working paper by Priya Deshingkar, Jon Sward and Elisenda Estruch-Puertas, 2012. Accessed on September 14, 2015
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This paper assesses how Decent Work Country Programmes (DWCPs) address the issue of internal migration, and evaluates the extent to which this discussion is related to rural-urban linkages and rural livelihood strategies.
Keywords: human mobility, rural-urban migration, labour migration, livelihood strategies, internal migration

Demographic Dynamics of Mega-Urban Regions: The Case of Mumbai
Paper by R. B. Bhagat and Gavin W. Jones, 2014; Demography India, Vol. 43, No. 1 & 2. Accessed on August 25, 2016
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This paper studies the spatial dynamics of population change and migration pattern in Mumbai and its adjoining areas and reflects upon planning and governance in the city. 
Keywords: Mumbai, India, internal migration, demography

Determinants of Migration and Remittance In India:Empirical Evidence
Working Paper 272
Paper by Jajati Keshari Parida; S Madheswaran
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Disaster-induced internal displacement in the Philippines. The case of Tropical Storm Washi/Sendong
Report  by Internal Displacement Monitoring Center (IDMC), 2013. Accessed on September 21, 2015
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This report highlights the strengths and weaknesses of the response to the Sendong disaster in the Philippines and the related recovery process. [Paper adapted from original].
Keywords: Philippines, Asia, natural disaster, displacement

Disaster-related displacement risk: measuring the risk and addressing its drivers
Report by Internal Displacement Monitoring Center (IDMC), 2015. Accessed on September 21, 2015
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This report applies the concept of risk to disaster-related displacement and quantifies human displacement risk worldwide.
Keywords: displacement, natural disaster, vulnerability, policy, environment

Displacement and Migration from Climate Hot-spots in Bangladesh: Causes and Consequences
Report by Md Shamsuddoha, S M Munjurul Hannan Khan, Sajid Raihan and Tanjir Hossain, 2012; ActionAid Bangladesh. Accessed on August 29, 2016.
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This report illustrates the primary causes of displacement and migration due to climate change in selected climate hotspots in Bangladesh. It aims to influence national policies and suggests future action to address the issue of displacement and migration within a broader socio-political and environmental context.
Tags: displacement, climate change, Bangladesh

Distressed Migrant Labour in India: Key Human Rights Issues
Book by K. Gopal Iyer, Kanishka, New Delhi, 2004
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In this book the thrust is on basic human rights issues of migrant labour in India and its violations at the grass roots level. It looks at issues of major human rights violations at the origin in Bihar and at destination in the various industries of Punjab and Haryana.
Keywords: labour, seasonal, scheduled tribes, source destination linkages

Divergent Migration Patterns and Foreign Community in Urban Neighbourhood: Multiculturalism Directions Observed from Case Study in Seoul, South Korea
Article by Ekaterina Shafray, Seiyong Kim, Environment and Urbanization Asia, 8(1), p. 22–39, National Institute of Urban Affairs (NIUA), SAGE Publications, 2017. Accessed on May 17, 2017.
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This article, regards multiculturalism, a prevailing approach to address the situation in many countries, and compares it with Korean immigration strategies. It draws attention to less numerous (compared to other foreign expats in Korea) immigration from post-Soviet countries and adaptation of ‘koryosaram’ (ethnic Koreans) in a host society.
Keywords: Multiculturalism directions, multicultural community, Seoul, social survey, migration and social mobility

Do Financial Remittances build Household-Level Adaptive Capacity?
Paper by Soumyadeep Banerjee, Dominic Kniveton, Richard Black, Suman Bisht, Partha Jyoti Das, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra & Sabarnee Tuladhar, 2017; KNOMAD Working Paper 18. Accessed on February 2, 2017
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This paper examines the role of financial remittances on the adaptive capacity of households in flood affected rural communities of Upper Assam in India. Findings reveal that remittances-receiving households are likely to have better access to formal financial institutions, insurance and communication devices than non-recipient households.
Keywords: adaptation, adaptive capacity, remittances, India

Do Women Benefit from Migration? An Editorial Introduction
Paper by Nicola Piper and Amber Friench; Diversities, Vol. 13, No. 1, UNESCO, 2011
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This article is the introduction to a special issue that tries to draw some conclusions on how migrant women fare in terms of gender justice, empowerment, and rights.
Keywords: gender, citizenship rights, rural to urban

Doing Gender, Doing Geography: Emerging Research in India
Book by Saraswati Raju and Kuntala Lahiri-Dutt; Routledge, India, 2011
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This study brings together Indian geographers’ contributions to understanding gender, and through them, seeks to enrich the discipline of geography. It engages with the recent ‘spatial turn’ in the social sciences, and the volume draws entirely from the Indian scholarship, showcasing contextualised knowledge production, but hopes to initiate a a dialogue with scholars elsewhere working with feminist methodologies.
Keywords: gender, culture, mobility

Domination and Circular Migration: A Study of Three Villages in Uttar Pradesh, India
Article by Sujoy Datta; Migration and Development, Volume 1, Issue 2, November, Routledge, 2012
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This paper conceptualises the cultural dynamics of daily commuting against the backdrop of agrarian change in three villages in Uttar Pradesh. In doing so, it brings about a linkage between power structure, politics and labour mobility. Although neither circular migration nor its understanding is new in the context of villages in India and the state of UP, this paper shows how subordinate groups have been able to renegotiate their identities promoted by ‘development’ to their advantage.
Keywords: labour, development, rural to urban

Drivers of Migration
Working paper by Migrating out of Poverty Research Programme Consortium, 2012. Accessed on September 14, 2015
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This paper explores the relationship between predisposing, triggering (proximate), precipitating and mediating factors which trigger migration.
Keywords: internal migration, international migration, migration causes, human mobility

Economic Conditions of the In-Migrant Workers in Kerala: A Case Study in the Trivandrum District
Paper by Dilip Saikia; Munich Personal RePEc Archive (MPRA) Paper No. 28579, March, 2008
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The major objective of the paper is to examine the economic conditions of the in-migrant workers in Kerala. This has been done by analysing their savings, income and consumption pattern and nature of work before and after migration. The analysis is based on data from a sample of 166 in-migrants workers in the Trivandrum district, which has been collected through a primary survey during September-October, 2008.
Keywords: inter-state, higher wages, better working conditions

Economic Cycles, Demographic Change and Migration
International Dialogue on Migration No. 19
Report by International Organization for Migration (IOM), 2012. Accessed on October 20, 2015.
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This paper exposes the experiences, policies and practices highlighted by participants at the IOM workshop on “Economic Cycles, Demographic Change and Migration” (Geneva, 12-13 September 2011), focusing on state capabilities to monitor migration movements, provide policy frameworks to promote and protect mobility, and capacity to enhance cooperation and governance.
Keywords: climate change, economics, migration

Emerging Pattern of Urbanisation and the Contribution of Migration in Urban Growth in India
Article by R. B. Bhagat & Soumya Mohanty; Asian Population Studies, Vol. 5, No. 1, March, Taylor and Francis, 2009
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This article looks at urbanization process with reference to regional inequality and to the contribution of the components of urban growth, namely, natural increase, emergence of new towns, and the net contribution of rural to urban migration.
Keywords: urbanisation, development, rural to urban

Emerging Pattern of Urbanisation in India
Article by R. B. Bhagat; Economic and Political Weekly Vol. 46, No. 34, August 2011 EPW Foundation
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This paper looks at urbanisation trends based on data from the Census 2011 and highlights the implications for providing infrastructure and other civic amenities in urban areas.
Keywords: urbanisation, development, inter state

Evidence on Policies to Increase the Development Impacts of International Migration
Working paper by David McKenzie and Dean Yang, 2014. Accessed on October 8, 2015.
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This paper critically reviews recent research on the effectiveness of these policies at three stages of the migration process: pre-departure, during migration, and directed towards possible return.
keywords: migration policy, remittances, return migration, impact evaluation, transit, pre-departure

Executive Summary of the Current State of Research on Social Inclusion in Asia and the Pacific: Focus on Ageing, Gender and Social Innovation
Report by Theresa W. Devasahayam. Contributing Authors: Juhua Yang; Aliya Ilyassova; Vijay Naidu; Lekha Subaiya. 2017
To read more, click here
This UNESCO MOST Paper serves as background research for the MOST Forum of Ministers of Social Development for the Asia-Pacific Region in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (20-23 March 2017). It provides a review and analysis of the current state of research on ageing, gender and social inclusion in the five sub-regions of the Asia Pacific.
Keywords: social inclusion, social innovation, ageing, gender 

Female Agency, Mobility and Socio-Cultural Change Conference,Barcelona, Spain 11-12 June 2015
United Nations University Institute on Globalization, Culture and Mobility
For programme, abstract and bios click here

Fair Recruitment in International Labour Migration between Asia and the Gulf Cooperation Council countries
Working paper by International Labour Organization (ILO), 2015. Accessed on October 8, 2015
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This paper provides an overview of the international labour standards on recruitment, and current practices in countries of origin and destination, in particular the role played by private recruitment agencies.
Keywords: Labour migration, international migration, Arab countries, Asia, Gulf Cooperation Council, recruitment

Female Migrants in India
Report by Lopamudra Ray Saraswati, Vartika Sharma and Avina Sarna, 2015; Population Council, New Delhi. Accessed on August 29, 2016.
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This study undertakes a cross-sectional bio-behavioural survey of internal female migrants in Delhi and Mumbai to better understand their socio-economic and health related vulnerabilities.
Tags: gender, health, internal migration, India

Female Migration in India
Article by D. P. Singh; Indian Journal Of Social Work Vol. 59, Issue 3, July, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, 1998
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This paper discusses the emerging migration pattern in India using place of birth and place of last residence concept data. Census data from 1961 to 1991 are used to examine the migration level, reasons for migration by type of migration streams, work force participation rate [and] education level of migrants.
Keywords: labour, gender, education, informal work

Financing Migration, Generating Remittances and the Building of Livelihood Strategies: A Case Study of Indonesian Migrant Women as Domestic Workers in Singapore
Working paper by Maria Platt, Brenda S.A. Yeoh, Grace Baey, Khoo Choon Yen, Theodora Lam, Dhiman Das and Miriam Ee, 2013. Accessed on September 14, 2015
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This working paper examines migration trajectories, cost and benefits of migration and trends in remittances for Indonesian women working as domestic workers in Singapore.
Keywords: migration, remittances, livelihood, migrant women, Singapore, Indonesia

From India to the Gulf region: Exploring links between labour markets, skills and the migration cycle
Report by International Labour Organization (ILO), 2015, Accessed on October 8, 2015
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This report examines the linkages between labour demand, its relationship to skills and the impact of the recruitment process on these aspects with a focus on migration from India to the Gulf Cooperation Council.
Keywords: Labour migration, India, Gulf region, migration cycle

Future Diasporas? International Student Migration from India to the UK
Final report by S. Irudaya Rajan and Neha Wadhawan (CDS), 2013. Accessed on September 17, 2015
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This paper presents data about students migrating from India to the UK, including their socio-economic background, costs, reasons to migrate, pre-perceptions, future prospects and migration process.
Keywords: Diaspora, student migration, international migration, India, UK

Gender and Migration in India
Paper by Indu Agnihotri, Indrani Majumdar and N. Neetha; National Workshop on Internal Migration and Human Development in India, 6-7 December 2011, Workshop Compendium, Vol. 2, Workshop Papers, UNESCO/ UNICEF, 2012
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This paper demonstrates how macro-data offers scope to raise several issues and questions that are of great relevance to an understanding of gender, migration and development in contemporary India.
Keywords: gender, development, rural to urban, poverty

Gender, Conflict and Migration
Book by Navnita Chadha Behera (ed.) Sage, India, 2006
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The essays in this volume seek to fill this gap by examining the changes in status, identities and power relations among women and men as they move from a conflict situation at home, to migrant camps, to the post-conflict or peace-building phase when they return home.
Keywords: gender, conflict, distress

Gender and Migration: Negotiating Rights A Women’s Movement Perspective
Report by Centre for Women’s Development Studies, New Delhi, 2012 accessed on August 1, 2013
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Presents a sketch of the key findings of the IDRC funded Gender and Migration project at the CWDS. The report aims at bringing the neglected dimensions of gender into the debates on migration in India
Keywords: gender, labour migration, marriage migration

Gender and Safe Mobility: Promising Global and Regional Practices
Report by International Organization for Migration, 2014. Accessed on January 10, 2017.
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This report has been designed as a tool to assist policy makers, and help others learn from global good practices on safe migration, with a focus on women migrants. It includes overviews of migration trends in South Asia; the national, regional, and international legal and regulatory environment, promising initiatives, practices and arrangements in the region; and global good practices to facilitate safe migration. While the study broadly covers the South Asian region, the focus is on three countries: Bangladesh, India, and Nepal.
Keywords: gender, South Asia, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, safe migration, policy

Gendered Migration Patterns, Processes and Outcomes: Results from a Household Survey in Ponorogo, Indonesia
Working paper by Khoo Choon Yen, Maria Platt, Brenda S.A. Yeoh, Silvia Mila Arlini, Grace Baey, Theodora Lam, Sukamdi, Julie Litchfield and Endang Sugiyarto, 2014. Accessed on September 14, 2015
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This paper compares the migration trends between male and female workers, and the consequences for their households’ livelihood strategies.
Keywords: gender, livelihood, labour migration, internal migration, international migration, Indonesia.

Gendered Mobility: Women Migrants and Work in Urban India
Paper by Arpita Banerjee and Saraswati Raju, 2009; Economic & Political Weekly, Vol. 44, No. 28. Accessed on June 7, 2016.
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This paper analyses the changing work profile of rural to urban and urban to urban migrant women in India through an analysis of  the 55th round data of the National Sample Survey (NSS). The authors focus on the extent of success of women in resisting gendered constructs while availing the work opportunities provided by migration.
Keywords: gender, internal migration, labour migration

Girl, Disrupted
Briefing paper by Internal Displacement Monitoring Center (IDMC), 2014. Accessed on September 21, 2015
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This paper highlights the challenges faced by young girls in displacement and the related measures taken by governments and aid workers in Afghanistan, Central African Republic (CAR), Colombia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Palestine.
Keywords: GBV, girl displacement, CAR, Colombia, DRC, and Palestine

Girls on the Move: Adolescent Girls & Migration in the Developing World
Report by Miriam Temin, Mark R. Montgomery, Sarah Engebretsen, & Kathryn M. Barker, 2013; The Population Council. Accessed on July 28, 2016.
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This report examines the social and economic determinants of internal migration for adolescent girls in developing countries to identify the links between migration, risk, and opportunity. The authors explore a wide range of evidence on migrant girls, including findings on programs for girls, and present an action agenda for increasing the visibility of migrant girls, reducing their vulnerability, and realising their full potential.
Keywords: gender, youth

God’s Own Workforce: Unravelling Labour Migration to Kerala
Report by Benoy Peter and Vishnu Narendran, 2017. Centre for Migration and Inclusive Development (CMID). Accessed on November 1, 2017.
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This report provides comprehensive information on labour migration to Kerala, and makes recommendations for migrant-inclusive development in the state.
Keywords: labour migration, internal migration, Kerala, India

Governance and Labour Migration: India Migration Report 2010
Book by S. Irudaya Rajan (ed.), Routledge, India, 2010
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This is the first in an annual series and analyses four significant themes: migration, remittances, gender, and policy. The articles provide a history of emigration, examine the need to manage the vast flow of remittances which contribute significantly to India’s GDP, understand, highlight the gender dimension of migration, and critically evaluate the present policy framework.
Keywords: gender, remittances, labour

Health of Internal Labour Migrants in India: Some Reflections on the Current Situation and Way Forward
Article by Anjali Borhade; Asia Europe Journal, Vol. 8, No. 4, April, Springer, 2012
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This paper reflects on the current situation of migrants and puts forth some perspectives on the way forward. It suggests some avenues for further research and scaling up of migrant-friendly health programmes.
Keywords: inter state, citizenship rights, better working conditions

How Migration into Urban Construction Work Impacts on Rural Hoseholds in Nepal
Working paper by Jagannath Adhikari and Priya Deshingkar, 2015. Accessed on October 1, 2015
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This paper presents the effects of remittances on social structure, class, gender and ethnicity for migrant construction workers in Kathmandu and their families.
Keywords: Labour migration, families, internal migration, construction work, poverty, remittances, Nepal

HIV 10 Times More Prevalent among Migrants than General Population
News article by Kounteya Sinha; The Times of India, January 12, 2012
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This article highlights the linkages between migration and data by NACO on HIV prevalence.
Keywords: labour, gender

Human Mobility and Climate Change Adaptation Policy: a Review of Migration in National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs)
Working paper by Jon Sward and Samuel Codjoe, 2012. Accessed on September 14, 2015
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This working paper shows how the National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs), created by Least Developed Countries (LDCs), aims to tackle migration-related issues such as drought-induced migration, rural exodus, transhumance, refugees, population displacement, and resettlement.
Keywords: climate change, National adaptation programmes, migration, human mobility, national policies, developing countries, displacement, resettlement, rural exodus

Human Rights Indicators for Migrants and their Families
Working paper by Pablo Ceriani Cernadas, Michele LeVoy, and Lilana Keith, 2015. Accessed on October 8, 2015.
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This paper provides a practical tool for governments at all levels and other key stakeholders to advance development objectives through the protection of migrants’ human rights.
Keywords: migration, human rights, migrant rights, low-skilled migration, education, health care, decent work, migration policy, development

Hyper-individualized Recruitment: Rural-urban Labour Migration and Precarious Construction Work in Bangladesh
Paper by Selim Reza, 2016. Migration, Mobility, & Displacement. Accessed on 25 October 2016.
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This paper critically examines the navigating role of individual recruiters in determining precarious work conditions for the rural-urban migrant construction workers in Bangladesh.
Keywords: internal migration, rural-urban, Bangladesh

Identities in Motion; Migration and Health In India
Paper by Chandrima Chatterjee; Centre for Enquiry into Health and Allied Themes (CEHAT), Background Series Paper, ISBN : 81-89042-46-7, October, 2006
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This paper provides evidence based recommendations for improving access and reducing barriers to health and healthcare for migrants along with addressing discrimination.
Keywords: better working conditions, citizenship rights

Impact of In-Migration on Industrial Development: Case Study of Jetpur in Gujarat
Article by Veronique Dupont; Economic and Political Weekly Vol. 27, No. 45, November, EPW Foundation, 1992
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This paper examines the impact of in-migration on the industrialisation process of a middle-sized town.
Keywords: development, urbanisation

Impact of Male Migration on Women in Left Behind: A Study based in Tribal south Rajasthan
Research report by Aajeevika Bureau, 2013. Accessed on October 21, 2015.
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This paper describes the experiences and challenges of women in community of south Rajasthan characterized by male out-migration.
Keywords: migration, gender, India, Rajasthan

Impact of Migration on Poverty and Development
Working paper by Tasneem Siddiqui, 2012. Accessed on September 14, 2015
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This paper presents the impact of different types of migration on individual migrants, on their left-behind family members, community, and economies both at source and destination.
Keywords: internal migration, labour migration, regional mobility, international mobility, source, destination

Impact of Labour Migration to the Construction Sector on Poverty: Evidence from India
Policy brief by Refugee and Migratory Movement Research Unit, 2014. Accessed on September 14, 2015
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This briefing paper presents costs and benefits of migrants working in the construction sector, related to their work and their living conditions, and provides related policy recommendations.
Keywords: construction workers, seasonal migration, circular migration, labour migration, policy, poverty, India

In the Absence of their Men: the Impact of Male Migration on Women
Book by Leela Gulati; Sage, India, 1993
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While studies exist which address the impact of migration on men, none have examined the impact on the women they leave behind. Focusing on ten such women, the author examines the various health, psychological, financial, and family issues that arise when men leave home.
Keywords: gender, long term, culture

Inclusive Growth? Labour Migration and Poverty in India
Working paper by Arjan de Haan; ISS Working Paper No. 513, January, ISS Hague, 2011 accessed on December 17, 2013
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This paper discusses the relationship between labour migration and poverty in India and focuses on the migration patterns of deprived social groups, analyse whether migration form a routes out of poverty, and what specific policies for these groups exist or should be recommended.
Keywords: labour, poverty, data, policy effects

Increase Utilization of RSBY by Migrant Workers and BPL Households – Examples; Advice 
Consolidated reply; Work and Employment Community, UN Solution Exchange, 2010 accessed on November 18, 2013
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This consolidated reply documents available services, institutions, and implementation mechanisms in place for meeting health insurance needs of migrant workers and other BPL households.
Keywords: poverty, rural to urban, portability of rights

India Migration Report 2009: Past, Present and the Future Outlook
Book by Binod Khadria (ed.); International Migration and Diaspora Studies Project, Zakir Hussain Centre for Educational Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, 2009
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This book provides an overview of migration from India to the major destination countires as well as immigration to India. The focus of the report is to put together issues and concerns of significance in the contemporary contexts of migration – both continuing and emerging.
Keywords: long term, remittances, mobility

India on the Move and Churning: New Evidence
Chapter in Economic Survey of India 2016-17. Accessed on February 2, 2017.
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This chapter analyzes two new datasets and methodologies to find high levels of internal work related migration in India.
Keywords: internal migration, labour migration, India

Indispensable yet unprotected: Working conditions of Indian Domestic Workers at Home and Abroad
Report by International Labour Organization (ILO), 2015, Accessed on October 8, 2015
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This study aims to provide policy-makers and service providers with deeper insight into the nature of forced labour and trafficking, in regards of Indians working in the Middle East.
Keywords: Forced labour, migrant workers, domestic workers, international migration, India, Middle East

Interaction between Migration and Development: A Study of Income and Workforce Diversification in Rural Bihar
Article by Nandan Kumar, R. B. Bhagat, Environment and Urbanization Asia, 8(1), p. 120-136, National Institute of Urban Affairs (NIUA), SAGE Publications, 2017. Accessed on May 17, 2017.
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The 
study is aimed to understand the process of out-migration and income diversification of households in rural areas. It is based on the primary survey of a block of an underdeveloped region like the state of Bihar in north India.
Keywords: Agriculture, income, out-migration, rural livelihood diversification, work-force

Inter-linkages between Internal and International Migration and Development in the Asian Region.
Population, Space and Place Vol. 12, pp. 15–30.
Journal Article by Ronald Skeldon, 2006. Accessed on December 11, 2015.
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This paper examines the linkages between systems of internal migration and systems of international migration in the Asian region.
Keywords: internal migration, international migration, development, mobility, Asia.

Internal and International Migration: Bridging the Theoretical Divide
Conference paper by King, Skeldon and Vullnetari, 2008. Accessed on December 14, 2015.
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This paper attempts to bridge the theoretical divide between internal and international migration studies, proposing concrete examples on how to integrate the two.
Keywords: internal migration, international migration, migration theory, research.

Internal and International Migration in East and Southeast Asia: Exploring the Linkages
Paper by Graeme John Hugo, 2015; Population, Place and Space. Accessed on July 28, 2016.
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This paper summarises the areas of convergence and divergence in the types, patterns, causes and consequences of internal and international migration in the Asian region. It also addresses the issue of linkages between internal and international migration, and suggests that in some cases international migration itself may influence the internal migration patterns of the resident population. On the other hand there may also be linkages in ‘origin’ countries where particular patterns of internal migration precede international migration.
Keywords: internal-international migration nexus

Internal and International migration in economic development
UN paper by DeWind and Holdaway, 2005. Accessed on December 14, 2015.
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This paper examines the development implications of internal and international migrations, determined by social and labour flows, and it highlights the gaps in current research on the topic.
Keywords: internal migration, international migration, economic development

Internal and International Migration in South Asia: Drivers, Interlinkage and Policy Issues
Discussion paper by Ravi Srivastava and Arvind Kumar Pandey, 2017. Accessed on July 25, 2017.
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This paper analyses the characteristics and drivers of international and internal migration in South Asia, as well as their inter-relationship. It argues for an integrated rights-based approach and policy framework for migration.
Keywords: internal migration, international migration, South Asia, policy

Internal displacement in South and South East Asia
Global overview 2014. People internally displaced by conflict and violence, pp. 64-77
Report by Internal Displacement Monitoring Center (IDMC), 2014. Accessed on September 21, 2015
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This report summarizes scale and main trends, causes and impacts, key issues, challenges and change in internal displacement in South and South East Asian countries in 2013. [Paper adapted from original].
Keywords: internal displacement, disaster-induced displacement, conflict-induced displacement, protection, durable solutions, national responses, South Asia, South East Asia.

Internal displacement in South and South East Asia
Global Overview 2012, People internally displaced by conflict and violence, pp. 61-74.
Final report by Internal Displacement Monitoring Center (IDMC), 2013. Accessed on September 21, 2015
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This report provides a short summary of the internal displacement figures, key issues and challenges in South and South East Asian countries in 2012. [Paper adapted from original].
Keywords: internal displacement, conflict, violence, natural disaster, protection, durable solutions, South Asia, South East Asia

Internal Displacement, Migration and Policy in Northeastern India
Working paper by Uddipana Goswami; East-West Center Washington Working Papers, No. 8, April, East-West Center Washington, 2007 accessed on December 17, 2013
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The paper is divided into four sections: migration; illegal migration and policy lacunae; ethnic politics and internal displacement; and state responses to internal displacement.
Keywords: forced, distress, minorities, policy effects

Internal Migrant Construction Workers in Nepal: Tackling Exploitative Labour Practices to Enhance Migration’s Impact on Poverty Reduction
Policy brief by Refugee and Migratory Movement Research Unit, 2014. Accessed on September 14, 2015
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This paper examines the positive and negative impact of migration of construction workers and their families in Nepal, in terms of improved livelihood and escaping out of poverty.
Keywords: internal migration, construction workers, rural-urban migration, exploitation, worker rights, poverty, Nepal

Internal Migrant Workers and the Construction Sector in Bangladesh: Tackling informality and exploitative labour practices
Policy brief by Refugee and Migratory Movement Research Unit, 2014. Accessed on September 14, 2015
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This paper identifies problems faced by migrant construction workers in Bangladesh due to the large number of cheap laborers.
Keywords: Internal migration, construction workers, rural-urban migration, exploitation, worker rights, Bangladesh

Internal Migrants and Social Protection: A review of eligibility and take-up
Paper by Emma Hopkins, Francesca Bastagli, & Jessica Hagen-Zanker, 2016; Overseas Development Institute. Accessed on July 28, 2016.
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This literature review assesses the evidence on internal migrants’ participation in social protection schemes in China, India, Vietnam, Bangladesh, South Africa and Kyrgyzstan.
Keywords: internal migration, social protection

Internal Migrants and Social Protection in India: the Missing Link
Paper by Ravi Srivastava; National Workshop on Internal Migration and Human Development in India, 6-7 December 2011, Workshop Compendium, Vol. 2, Workshop Papers, UNESCO/ UNICEF, 2012
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A key argument of this paper is that these goals cannot be met without their achievement by some of the most vulnerable sections of society who include the poorer strata of internal migrants. The reasons for this and the possible strategies to address deprivation are discussed.
Keywords: poverty, scheduled castes, scheduled communities, minorities

Internal Migrants: Myths & Facts
A UNESCO 2013 publication
To read more click here

Internal Migration: A Manual for Community Radio Stations in India
UNESCO and Ideosync, 2015; UNESCO. Accessed on August 4, 2016.
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Given the Internal Migration in India Initiative’s (IMII) mandate to increase understanding of the issue of internal migration, as well as to inform migrants about their rights and entitlements, UNESCO and IDEOSYNC have developed a training manual to support community radio personnel in their capacity and potential to produce and broadcast migrant-sensitive programmes.
Keywords: community radio, internal migration

Internal Migration and Children 
Policy Brief; in For a Better Inclusion of Internal Migrants in India: UNESCO and UNICEF Policy Briefs 2012 accessed on October 2, 2013
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Children are the most unrecognized and vulnerable groups among internal migrants. They migrate independently or as dependents when their families migrate and often lose access to basic entitlements, miss out on schooling and are subject to health and security risks. Child migrants forgo critical inputs necessary for their physical, psychological and intellectual development during their formative years. This has an irreversible impact on their emotional and cognitive development.
Keywords: children, portability of rights, education

Internal Migration and Development: A Global Perspective
Paper by Priya Deshingkar & Steve Grimm; IOM Migraton Research Series, No. 19, February, IOM, 2005
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This paper highlights the fact that internal migration can play an important role in poverty reduction and it should not be controlled. By underplaying or ignoring the vast contribution that migrant labour makes to the economy, governments escape the responsibility of providing them with adequate living conditions, minimum wages and freedom from exploitation and harassment.
Keywords: poverty, higher wages, better working conditions

Internal Migration and Gender
Policy Brief; in For a Better Inclusion of Internal Migrants in India: UNESCO and UNICEF Policy Briefs 2012 accessed on October 2, 2013
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The current discourse on migration has failed to adequately address gender-specific migration experiences, even though women constitute an overwhelming majority of migrants. A gender perspective on migration is imperative, since women have significantly different migration motivations, patterns, options and obstacles from men.
Keywords: gender, marriage migration, culture, poverty

Internal Migration and Human Development
Policy Brief; in For a Better Inclusion of Internal Migrants in India: UNESCO and UNICEF Policy Briefs 2012 accessed on October 2, 2013
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Although migration can potentially benefit migrants and their families, there are also heavy costs and risks that compromise the potentially positive outcomes of migration. This policy brief lists the key challenges, fact and figure as well as policy recommendations on internal migration and human development.
Keywords: culture, poverty, uneven development

Internal Migration and Social Protection: The Missing Link
Policy Brief; in For a Better Inclusion of Internal Migrants in India: UNESCO and UNICEF Policy Briefs 2012 accessed on October 2, 2013
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As social protection policies and programmes are focused on only settled populations, internal migrants lose access to social security benefits linked to permanent residence. There remains no concerted strategy to ensure portability of entitlements for migrants. Planning for migrant families who are not settled, but are on the move, warrants a fundamental rethinking of development approaches and models in order to protect and promote migrants’ access to social services and enable migrants to become socially and politically active citizens.
Keywords: portability of rights, policy effects

Internal Migration and Socio-Economic Status of Migrants: A Study in Sylhet City, Bangladesh
Paper by Iqbal Ahmed Chowdhury, Nadia Haque, Mohammad Mostufa Kamal, Tanjina Islam, Mohammad Maniruzzaman Khan, Mohammad Nazrul Islam and Imtiaz Uddin, 2012. American Journal of Human Ecology. Accessed on 25 October 2016.
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This study uses a descriptive research design to determine the factors of internal migration and assesses its impact on socio-economic status of migrants living in Sylhet City Corporation, Bangladesh.
Keywords: internal migration, Bangladesh

Internal Migration and the Development Nexus: the Case of Bangladesh
Paper by Rita Afsar; Migration, Development and Pro Poor Policy Choices in Asia, DFID conference paper, DFID, 2003
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Rural to urban migration is the most prevalent form of migration in Bangladesh. This paper is based on a study that found that nearly two-thirds of emigration from among 62 randomly sampled villages was to urban areas. The figure for rural-rural migration was 10% and was 24% for overseas migration.
Keywords: rural to urban, circular, policy effects

Internal Migration and the Right to Education
Policy Brief; in For a Better Inclusion of Internal Migrants in India: UNESCO and UNICEF Policy Briefs 2012 accessed on October 2, 2013
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Migrant children are among the most educationally marginalized in India. The right to education (under the Right to Education Act, [RTE] 2009) of migrant children remains compromised, since seasonal and temporary migration results in disruption of regular and continued schooling of children, adversely affecting their human capital formation and contributing to the inter-generational transmission of poverty.
Keywords: children, portability of rights, education

Internal Migration and the Right to the City
Policy Brief; in For a Better Inclusion of Internal Migrants in India: UNESCO and UNICEF Policy Briefs 2012 accessed on October 2, 2013
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Internal migration is an integral part of development, contributing to the dynamics of urban growth and economic and cultural vibrancy of cities. The right to the city, which encompasses rights and access to food, housing, education, health, work, and local democracy, should also apply to migrants.
Keywords: urbanisation, education, rural to urban

Internal Migration and Youth in India: Main Features, Trends and Emerging Challenges
Discussion Paper by S. Irudaya Rajan; UNESCO Discussion Papers, UNESCO, 2013
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This UNESCO discussion paper takes stock of the latest available data on current trends in internal migration of youth in India.
Keywords: youth, rural to urban, labour, informal work, data

Internal Migration Data Around the World: Assessing Contemporary Practice
Population, Space and Place, Vol. 21, pp. 1-17.
Journal Article by Bell M. et al, 2015, Accessed on December 1, 2015.
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This paper reports results from the Internal Migration Around the Globe project, which established an inventory of internal migration data collections for the 193 UN Member States, identifying, inter alia, the types of data collected, the intervals over which it is measured and the spatial frameworks employed.
Keywords: international migration, internal migration, research

Internal Migration in Bangladesh: Character, Drivers and Policy Issues
Report by Richard Marshall and Shibaab Rahman, 2013; United Nations Development Programme, Bangladesh. Accessed on August 29, 2016.
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This paper explores the nature, causes and dynamics of domestic migration, and specifically the role played by three distinct factors – livelihoods and economy, the quality of public services and the presence of challenging environmental conditions. It presents key findings, conclusions and offers a series of policy recommendations.
Tags: internal migration, Bangladesh

Internal Migration in Developing Economies: An Overview
Working paper by Robert E.B. Lucas, 2015. Accessed on October 8, 2015.
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This paper provides an overview of the state of knowledge on internal migration in developing economies, with particular emphasis on recent contributions to the literature.
Keywords: internal migration, migration drivers, developing countries

Internal Migration in India: An Overview of its Features, Trends and Policy Challenges 
Paper by Ravi Srivastava; National Workshop on Internal Migration and Human Development in India, 6-7 December 2011, Workshop Compendium, Vol. 2, Workshop Papers, UNESCO/ UNICEF, 2012
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This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the context to examine the changing pattern and trends in migration in India. An analysis of these changes and their implications is limited by the availability of data and studies. While drawing conclusions from available evidence, the paper also points to the existing gaps in available research.
Keywords: labour, poverty, development

Internal Migration in India: Are the Underprivileged Migrating More?
Asia-Pacific Population Journal Vol. 25, No.1
Journal article by United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), 2010. Accessed on November 2, 2015.
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This study explores the correlation between in- and out-migration, and per capita incomes and livelihoods, particularly focusing on the non-agricultural sector.
Keywords: Internal migration, income, livelihood, poverty, immigration, emigration, India

Internal Migration in India: Distress and Opportunities. A Study of Internal Migrants to Vulnerable Occupations in Delhi
Report by Harsh Mander and Gayatri Sahgal; Centre for Equity Studies, 2012 accessed on September 2, 2013
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The paper is about the lived experiences of internal migrants to vulnerable occupations to Delhi, one of the most powerful magnets for such migration in the country. The study enquires who these people are, what factors propel them to the metropolis.
Keywords: rural to urban, informal work, poverty

Internal Migration in India: Setting the Context
Urban India January – June 2014
Journal article by S. Chandrasekhar and Poornima Dore, 2014. Accessed on October 9, 2015.
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This article presents the context of internal migration in contemporary India, particularly rural-urban migration, and presents recommendations for the government. 
Keywords: internal migration, mobility, employment, urban, labour, seasonal migration, policy, rural-urban, India

Internal Migration in India Initiative (IMII)
Policy Brief; UNESCO and UNICEF accessed on October 2, 2013
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In order to raise awareness on the multifaceted challenges faced by internal migrants in India, estimated at 326 millions (NSSO 2007-2008), highlight efficient policy responses and change negative perceptions towards migrants in society, UNESCO New Delhi had developed an eight-page flyer, summarizing critical information and recent research.
Keywords: rural to urban, policy effects, urbanisation

Internal Migration in India Initiative: National Workshop on Internal Migration and Human Development In India
National Workshop on Internal Migration and Human Development in India, 6-7 December 2011, Workshop Compendium, Vol. 1, Workshop Papers, UNESCO/ UNICEF, 2012
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Internal Migration in Nepal
Chapter by Bhim Raj Suwal (in Population Monograph of Nepal), 2014, Central Bureau of Statistics, Government of Nepal. Accessed on 19 October 2016.
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Based on 2011 and other decennial population census data, this chapter examines volumes, trends, patterns, causes and socio-economic characteristics of migrants by ecological zone, development region, rural/urban areas, and districts.
Keywords: Nepal, internal migration, data

Internal Migration, Remittances and Poverty:Evidence from Ghana and India
Migrating Out Of Poverty-Research Program Consortium; Working Paper 7; September 2012
Paper by Adriana Castaldo; Andy Mckay; Priya Deshingkar
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Internal Remittances and Poverty: Further Evidence From Africa and Asia
Working Paper 12; March 2014
Paper by Andy Mckay; Priya Deshingkar
To read more click here

Internal versus International Migration and the Role of Multiple Deprivation. Some Evidence from India
Asian Population Studies, Vol. 8, No. 2, July 2012
Report by Mathias Czaika, 2012. Accessed on December 14, 2015.
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This study uses the concept of relative deprivation, distinguishing between feelings of individual and collective relative deprivation, to examine the migration decision-making in the context of India.
Keywords: relative deprivation, internal migration, international migration, India.

International Migration and Citizenship in Nepal
Chapter by Padma Prasad Khatiwada (in Population Monograph of Nepal), 2014, Central Bureau of Statistics, Government of Nepal. Accessed on 19 October 2016.
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Utilising mainly 2011 census information, this chapter attempts to establish evidence based on facts and figures to support the issues, concerns and observations about international migration in Nepal.
Keywords: Nepal, international migration, data

International Migration Report 2015: Highlights
Report by UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2016. Accessed on November 28, 2016.
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This report presents the highlights of the International Migration Report 2015, which contains quinquennial estimates of international migrant stock for 232 countries or areas from 2000 to 2015. The annex in these Highlights provides data for 2000 and 2015 on the estimated number of international migrants, the percentage of migrants in the total population, the percentage of female migrants, and the median age of migrants for 232 countries or areas of the world.
Keywords: international migration, data

Interpreting Migration through the Prism of Reasons for Moves
Population, Space and Place, Vol. 21, pp. 54–67.
Journal Article by William A. V. Clark and Regan Maas, 2015, Accessed on December 1, 2015.
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The paper provides evidence that while migration is clearly related to labour market opportunities, non-economic motivations including family change, lifestyle choices, and housing needs also play powerful roles in long distance migration decisions and often come with significant economic benefits.
Keywords: migration, economy, decision-making, labour, livelihoods

Irregular Maritime Migration in the Bay of Bengal: The Challenges of Protection, Management, and Cooperation
Report by Kathleen Newland, 2015. Accessed on October 20, 2015.
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This paper attempts to contextualize the 2015 migration crisis, providing an overview of the routes and patterns of migration, the development of migration out of Myanmar’s Rakhine state over the past few years and how policy responses to it have assigned priority to the protection of migrants and refugees, to the management of the maritime flows and to cooperation on migration with countries in the region and beyond.
Keywords: migration crisis, Myanmar, international migration, policy, cooperation

Job Search and Labour Market Conditions of Migrants at the Destination: The Case of Lucknow
Journal article by Probir Bose and RamjeeRai, 2014. Accessed on October 9, 2015.
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This paper highlights the problems faced by migrant workers in the capital city of Lucknow in Uttar Pradesh, India, their job search process, job mobility and other labour market issues.
Keywords: Lucknow, migration, job mobility, labour market, Uttar Pradesh, job search, employment

Labour migration for decent work in Afghanistan: Issues and challenges
Report by International Labour Organization (ILO), 2014. Accessed on October 8, 2015
To read more, click here (PDF; Size: 432 KB)
This paper examines the trends and profile of labour migration from Afghanistan, prospects for foreign employment and foreign employment promotion.
Keywords: Decent work, employment creation, promotion of employment, migrant workers, international migration, labour migration, Asia, Afghanistan

Labour Migration for Employment – A Status Report for Nepal: 2013/2014
Report by the Department of Foreign Employment, Government of Nepal, 2014. Accessed on October 19 2016.
To read more, click here (PDF; Size: 1.5 MB)
This report captures trends in labour migration for foreign employment from Nepal, identifies structural gaps and suggests ways to move forward for the Government and stakeholders. 
Keywords: Nepal, international migration, data

Labour Migration to Kerala: District Migration Profiles
Articles by Benoy Peter and Vishnu Narendran, Centre for Migration and Inclusive Development, 2017. Accessed on 27 October 2017.
To read more, click here
These profiles were prepared based on a qualitative research undertaken by the authors across the 14 districts in Kerala during November 2016–May 2017.
Keywords: labour migration, livelihood

Labour Migration to Kerala: Sector Brief: Construction
Article by Benoy Peter and Vishnu Narendran, Centre for Migration and Inclusive Development
To read more, click here (PDF; 3.01 MB)
This sector brief was prepared based on a qualitative research undertaken by the authors across the 14 districts in Kerala during November 2016–May 2017.
Keywords: construction, labour migration, livelihood,

Labour Migration to Kerala: Sector Brief: Marine Fishing
Article by Benoy Peter and Vishnu Narendran, Centre for Migration and Inclusive Development
To read more, click here
This sector brief was prepared based on a qualitative research undertaken by the authors across the 14 districts in Kerala during November 2016–May 2017.
Keywords: marine fishing, labour migration, livelihood

Land, Labour and Migrations: Understanding Kerala’s Economic Modernity
Working paper by V. J. Varghese; CDS Working Paper No. 420, December, Centre for Development Studies, 2009
To read more, click here
This paper seeks to map out the historical trajectory leading to a series of migrations in and from the erstwhile princely state of Travancore during 1900-70 in order to acquire and bring land under cultivation.
Keywords: culture, inter state, labour

Leaving no one behind: Internal displacement and the 2030 agenda for sustainable development
Review of practices and case studies by Internal Displacement Monitoring Center (IDMC), 2015. Accessed on September 30, 2015.
To read more, click here (PDF; Size: 484 KB)
This paper provides recommendation for UN member states to address internal displacement, in order to ensure inclusive and sustainable progress towards the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals.
Keywords: Sustainable development, SDGs, internal displacement, inclusive development, 2030 agenda

Linkage Between Internal Migration and Crime: Evidence from India
Paper by Avijit Debnath and Niranjan Roy; International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice, Volume 41, Issue 3, September, Elselvier, 2013
To read more, click here
Migration has been a major source of human survival, adaptation, and economic change over centuries across regions. Today, more than ever, migration forms a central part of the global flow of humans, practices, and ideas. However, from a social point of view, migration is often considered as a potential source of social disorder and crime. Several explanations have been provided on this aspect in Indian context but none of these provide a sound analysis of the linkage between migration and crime. This paper attempts to investigate empirically the association between interstate migration and crime in India.
Keywords: culture, inter state, labour

Linkages between Internal and International Migrations: Policy Implications for Development.
Conference paper by Natali C, International Organization for Migration (IOM), 2009. Accessed on December 14, 2015.
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This paper aims to bridge the gap between internal and international migration in policy-making, using specific examples from China, Mexico and Thailand.
Keywords: internal migration, international migration, development, policy-making, China, Mexico, Thailand.

Linking Separate Worlds: Understanding the Process of Rural-Urban Seasonal Migration in India
Journal article by Dr. Yogesh Kumar and Ms. Anamika Ajay, 2014. Accessed on October 9, 2015.
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Based on field studies at source as well as destination, this paper focuses on the experiences of tribal migrants in the state of Madhya Pradesh and argues that a gamut of flawed policies to this effect are an outcome of lack of micro-level understanding of seasonal migration.
Keywords: Madhya Pradesh, migration, policy, seasonal migration, rural development, short-term migration

Living Rough: Surviving the City Streets: A Study of Homeless Populations -Delhi, Chennai, Madurai and Patna
Report by Centre for Equity Studies for study conducted for IOM, 2012 accessed on September 30, 2013
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This report records the findings of a small investigation into a fragment of this experience of homelessness, and into the social, economic and nutritional situation of the urban homeless in four cities: Delhi, Chennai, Madurai and Patna. The study finds that the lived experience of urban poverty, and even more so of urban homelessness, differs in many significant ways from that of rural poverty.
Keywords: poverty, exclusionary urbanisation, informal work

Living in Domesti-City: Women and Migration for Domestic Work from Jharkhand
Article by Neha Wadhawan; Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 48, No. 43, October, EPW Foundation, 2013
To read more, click here
This paper examines migration for live-in domestic work from Jharkhand through a multi-method approach. Looking at data on educational levels, migration processes and social relations at the village level, the confluence of factors based on tribe, gender, religion and education that perpetuates trends of migration for live-in domestic work from the region are highlighted.
Keywords: gender, rural to urban, labour, scheduled tribes, mobility

Living with Hunger: Deprivation among the aged, Single Women and people with Disability
Article by Harsh Mander; Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 43, Issue No.17, April 26, EPW Foundation, 2008
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This paper describes the experience of living with hunger as recounted by persons from intensely insecure social groups from eight villages in Orissa, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh.
Keywords: poverty, distress, scheduled tribes

Locating Women in Migration Studies: An Overview
Article by Lakshmi Lingam; Indian Journal Of Social Work Vol. 59, Issue 3, July, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, 1998
To read more, click here
This introductory paper to this special issue on `Women and Migration’ has attempted to provide an overview of the gendered nature of migration processes in India.
Keywords: gender, culture, labour

Low-skilled Labour Migration: Benefits outweigh Costs in Host Economies
Policy brief by Uri Dadush and Soonhwa Yi, 2014. Accessed on October 8, 2015.
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This paper highlights costs of low-skilled labor migration, and its benefits for the host economies, providing precise policy recommendations.
Keywords:  Labour migration, low-skilled labour, host countries, economics, policy

Macroeconomic Determinants of Remittances: Evidence from India
IMF European Department; Working Paper; December 2005
Paper by Poonam Gupta
To read more click here

Making Street Children Matter. A census study in Mumbai City
Report by Action-Aid India and TISS, 2013. Accessed on September 17, 2015
To read more, click here (PDF; Size: 1.12 MB)
A census of street children in Mumbai, focusing their social, economic, educational, work, and family background, on their reasons for living on the streets, their current problems, and future aspirations.
Keywords: India, Mumbai, street children, poverty, housing, child labour

Male Migration and ‘Left–behind’ Women: Bane or Boon?
Article by AKM Ahsan Ullah, Environment and Urbanization Asia, 8(1), p. 59-73, National Institute of Urban Affairs (NIUA), SAGE Publications, 2017. Accessed on May 17, 2017.
To read more, click here (PDF; Size: 826KB)
This article examines the impact of husbands’ migration on the lives of ‘left-behind’ women. The purpose of this research is to investigate how the ‘left-behind’ women turned around in the absence of their husbands and eventually how did they end up being empowered financially, socially and politically.

Keywords: Migration, left-behind, empowerment, patriarchy, MENA

Marriage, Migration and Gender
Book by Rajni Palriwala and Patricia Oberoi (eds.), Sage, India, 2008
To read more, click here
The articles in this volume bring a gender-sensitive perspective to bear on aspects of marriage and migration in intra and transnational contexts.
Keywords: marriage, culture, gender, inter state

Measuring Internal Migration around the Globe: A Comparative Analysis
Working paper by Martin Bell and Elin Charles-Edwards, 2014. Accessed on October 8, 2015.
To read more, click here (PDF; Size: 1.92 MB)
This paper examines how internal migration varies between countries around the world, provides comparisons and identifies the impediments which have constrained prior research and policies.
keywords: internal migration, data, migration intensity, comparative analysis, research, policy

Migrant Informalities of Indian Steel Towns: Planning Lessons from Rourkela, Bhilai and Durgapur
Article by Miho Mazereeuw, Mayank Ojha, Aditya Barve, Environment and Urbanization Asia, 8(1), p. 74-93, National Institute of Urban Affairs (NIUA), SAGE Publications, 2017. Accessed on May 17, 2017.
To read more, click here (PDF; Size: 7716KB)
This article examines the territorialization of migrant informality as a result of specific planning policies in Indian steel cities of Bhilai, Durgapur and Rourkela.
Keywords: Steel cities, industrial urbanization, India

Migrant Women and Work
Book by Anuja Agarwal (ed.), Sage, India, 2006
To read more, click here
This volume is focused on Asian women who migrate either globally or across the Asian continent or within their respective countries in order to seek work.
Keywords: gender, labour, poverty

Migrant Women, Work Participation and Urban Experiences
Article by Lakshmi Lingam; Indian Journal Of Social Work Vol. 59, Issue 3, July, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, 1998
To read more, click here
The article attempts to elucidate the relationship of gender and migration and factors determining women’s work participation, earnings and mobility.
Keywords: gender, higher wages, remittances, mobility

Migrants Count: Five Steps Toward Better Migration Data
Report of the Commission on International Migration Data for Development Research and Policy, 2009; Center for Global Development. Accessed on November 4, 2016.
To read more, click here (PDF; 456 KB)
This report presents five recommendations to remedy the lack of good data on migration and its effects on development.
Keywords: data

Migrants’ (Denied) Access to Health Care in India
Paper by Anjali Borhade; National Workshop on Internal Migration and Human Development in India, 6-7 December 2011, Workshop Compendium, Vol. 2, Workshop Papers, UNESCO/ UNICEF, 2012
To read more, click here
This paper highlights the multitude of factors which affect the health of migrants, including inadequate nutrition, poor housing conditions, hazardous occupational conditions, lack of access to health care services and a low level of awareness.
Keywords: better working conditions, citizenship, portability of rights

Migrants’ (Denied) Right to the City
Paper by R. B. Bhagat; National Workshop on Internal Migration and Human Development in India, 6-7 December 2011, Workshop Compendium, Vol. 2, Workshop Papers, UNESCO/ UNICEF, 2012
To read more, click here
This paper presents an array of cases of denial of migrants’ right to the city: it reviews the nature and process of migration to urban areas in the light of recently available evidence; identifies the exclusionary processes operating in Indian cities that influence migration and migrants, and suggests strategies for the integration of migrants to build inclusive cities in India.
Keywords: urbanisation, portability of rights, poverty, rural to urban, policy effects

Migrants, Livelihoods, and Rights: The Relevance of Migration in Development Policies
Working paper by Arjan de Haan; Social Development Working Paper No.4, February, Eldis, 2000 accessed on December 17, 2013
To read more, click here (PDF; Size: 105 KB)
This paper aims to inform development policy debates with an improved understanding of migration. The paper starts from the idea that these debates pay too little attention to the contribution of migration to poverty reduction: policies tend to ignore migration, or have the implicit or explicit aim to reduce migration. The paper identifies possible negative aspects of migration, including increasing inequality and other effects on those who stay behind, but the emphasis is on the positive role migration plays for poor households. Building on new literature on sustainable livelihoods, the paper argues that we need a better understanding of the capabilities and strategies of poor people, in their own perspective, and that this will help to improve development policies.
Keywords: urbanisation, poverty, rural to urban, policy effects

Migrants: Voices of Delhi’s Silent Majority
Published by UNESCO and UNICEF, 2011 accessed on September 30, 2013
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Migrants constitute a “floating” population, as they alternate between living at their home and host location, and in turn lose access to social security benefits linked to the residence, and other informal social networks.
Keywords: migrant networks, portability of rights

Migration and Conflict in the Mega City: A Study of Migrants in Hyderabad (Urban India Jan – Jun 2014)
Journal article by Triveni Goswami Vernal, Bagmi Priyadarshini, Sayed Nayeem, P. Raghavendra (Yugantar), 2014. Accessed on October 9, 2015.
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This study looks at the labour market conditions and experiences of migrants in Hyderabad, and their difficulties in establishing a new social space and new identities.
Keywords: Migration, identity, kinship, social networks, labour market, Hyderabad

Migration and Development: A Bottom-up Approach: A Handbook for Practitioners and Policy Makers
Published by European Commission- United Nations Joint Migration and Development Initiative (JMDI) accessed on November 2, 2013
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This handbook is produced in the framework of the European Commission- United Nations Joint Migration and Development Initiative (JMDI) supporting small-scale organizations in their concrete efforts towards linking migration and development.
Keywords: development, rural to urban, mobility

Migration and Development: Perspectives from the South
Book by Stephen Castles and Raúl Delgado Wise (eds.), IOM, Geneva, 2008
To read more, click here
This book is the result of an attempt to initiate South-South dialogue on the potential and the dilemmas of migration-development linkages in five major emigration countries: India, Mexico, Morocco, the Philippines and Turkey.
Keywords: culture, development, mobility, source destination linkages

Migration and Development Within and Across Borders: Research and Policy Perspectives on Internal and International Migration
Paper by DeWind and Holdaway, 2008. Accessed on December 14, 2015.
To read more, click here
This paper examines the limitation in research and policy-making on internal and international migration, and it highlights the commonalities in the two fields, in an attempt of bridging the theoretical gap between them.
Keywords: internal migration, international migration, development, research, policy.

Migration and Exclusionary Urbanisation in India
Article by Amitabh Kundu and Lopamudra Ray Saraswati ; Economic and Political Weekly Vol. 47, No. 26-27, June, EPW Foundation, 2012
To read more, click here
Poverty-induced migration has become a less important component of mobility over time. At the same time, in a bid to attract private capital, urban centres have become less accommodating to the poor, restricting their entry and thereby increasing rural-urban economic inequalities. The paper assesses the strategy of spatially unbalanced growth through “dispersal of concentrations” advocated by the World Bank and others.
Keywords: urbanisation, poverty, rural to urban

Migration and Gender in India
Article by Indrani Majumdar, N. Neetha & Indu Agnihotri; Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 43, Issue No.10, March 9, EPW Foundation, 2013
To read more, click here
This paper presents a sketch of the key findings of a research project on Gender and Migration at the Centre for Women’s Development Studies.
Keywords: gender, labour, poverty, informal work, mobility

Migration and Human Development in India: New Challenges and Opportunities
Paper by Priya Deshingkar and Matteo Sandi; National Workshop on Internal Migration and Human Development in India, 6-7 December 2011, Workshop Compendium, Vol. 2, Workshop Papers, UNESCO/ UNICEF, 2012
To read more, click here
This paper discusses unexplored linkages between migration and human development through an analysis of outcomes for health and education among different social groups.
Keywords: labour, poverty, scheduled tribes, scheduled, castes

Migration and Immunization: Determinants of Childhood Immunization Uptake among Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Migrants in Delhi, India
Article by Yadlapalli S. Kusuma, Rita Kumari, Chandrakant S. Pandav and Sanjeev K. Gupta ; Tropical Medicine and International Health, Vol. 15, No. 11, November, Blackwell Publishing Limited, 2010
To read more, click here
This paper try to determine the coverage of childhood immunization appropriate for age among socioeconomically disadvantaged rural–urban migrants living in Delhi and to identify the determinants of full immunization uptake among these migrant children.
Keywords: rural to urban, citizenship rights, poverty

Migration and Information Communications Technology Use: A Case Study of Indonesian Domestic Workers in Singapore
Working paper by Maria Platt, Brenda S.A. Yeoh, Kristel Anne Acedera, Khoo Choon Yen, Grace Baey and Theodora Lam, 2014. Accessed on September 14, 2015
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This paper explores the use of Information Communications Technology (ICT) among Indonesian Foreign Domestic Workers (FDWs) in Singapore, considering the introduction of cheaper mobile devices and increasing access to free internet access.
Keywords: International migration, ICT, Singapore, Indonesia, mobile devices, internet

Migration and Livelihoods in Historical Perspective: A Case Study of Bihar, India
Article by Arjan de Haan; The Journal of Development Studies, Volume 38, Issue 5, Routledge, 2002
To read more, click here
This article explores the role migration has played over a long period of time, in western Bihar, India. By doing so, it reinforces the importance of migration for livelihoods: this case study challenges the assumption that migration would be a recent phenomenon, and argues that to understand the history of this area one needs to take account of the complex interaction between migration and development.
Keywords: poverty, development, culture

Migration and Precarious Work: Negotiating Debt, Employment, and Livelihood Strategies Amongst Bangladeshi Migrant Men Working in Singapore’s Construction Industry
Working paper by Grace Baey and Brenda S.A. Yeoh, 2015. Accessed on September 14, 2015
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This working paper examines the different processes and practices that mediate Bangladeshi men’s migration experiences and outcomes, as well as how they view and negotiate issues of debt and risk in their trajectories.          
Keywords: employment, livelihood, labour migration, international migration, Bangladesh, debt.

Migration and Social Networks: Evidence from Bangladesh                                                       
Working paper by Julie Litchfield, Raisul Mahmood, Tasneem Siddiqui, Eva-Maria Egger, and Shayan Ansari, 2015. Accessed on October 9, 2015
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This paper explores the role of social networks in the migration process in Bangladesh, with particular focus on access to adequate housing and employment.
Keywords: Labour migration, internal migration, social networks, housing, employment, Bangladesh.

Migration and Poverty in India: A Multi-Patterned and Complex Reality
Working paper by Amita Shah and Animesh Kumar; CPRC-IIPA Working Paper No. 45, Chronic Poverty Research Centre, IIPA, 2011 accessed on December 17, 2013
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The paper reviews the existing evidence on migration-poverty interface in the light of the macro and micro level studies in India. It also discusses the extent, patterns, and correlates of short term migration with the help a large set of data collected from rural households in major states in the country. Policy implications are also discussed.
Keywords: rural to urban, short term, poverty, policy effects, data

Migration and Resilience: Experiences from Nepal’s 2015 Earthquake
Research Paper by Bandita Sijapa with Jeevan Baniya, Anish Bhandari, Ashim Bha arai, Sambriddhi Kharel, Amrita Limbu, Dinesh Pathak, Nabin Rawal and Prakri  Thami; Centre for the Study of Labour and Mobility, 2015. Accessed on October 19 2016.
To read more click here. (PDF; Size: 1.1 MB)
The research paper examines the impact of the April 25 earthquake and its aftershocks on a range of of behavioural issues linked to migration.
Keywords: Nepal,  internal migration, international migration, natural disasters

Migration and Urban Poverty in India: Some Preliminary Observations
Working paper by William Joe, Priyajit Samaiyar and U. S. Mishra; CDS Working Paper No. 414, September 2009, Centre for Development Studies accessed on December 17, 2013
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This paper deals with migration decisions to urban areas that are backed by economic rationale and attempts to understand gains accruing to individuals from migration, in terms of poverty outcomes. The analysis is based on the 55th round survey data on Employment – Unemployment Survey 1999-2000 (EUS) provided by the National Sample Survey Organisation. The authors undertake a broad descriptive socio-economic profiling of the migrant households in urban India and explore the dynamics of poverty among interstate as well as intrastate migrants to urban destinations.
Keywords: urbanisation, higher wages, remittances

Migration as a Development Challenge: Analysis of Root Causes and Policy Implications
Report by the secretariat of UNESCO’s intergovernmental science programme on the Management of Social Transformations (MOST), January 2017, Accessed on February 20, 2017
To read more, click here
The purpose of this document is to consider the nexus between migration and development from the perspective of research in the social and human sciences and to contribute and enhance the knowledge base available for policy design and implementation at the European Union (EU) level.
Keywords: development, policy making

Migration, Common Property Resources and Environmental Degradation: Interlinkages in India’s Arid and Semi-Arid Regions
Book by Kanchan Chopra and S.C. Gulati; Sage, India, 2001
To read more, click here
Theoretical literature and empirical evidence often contend that poverty results in environmental degradation, particularly in the depletion of natural resource endowments. The authors of this book differ, arguing that this linkage is not simple arithmetic, but one that is mediated by the institutional innovations for the management of common property resources.
Keywords: poverty, climate change, rural to urban

Migration, Development and Poverty Reduction in Asia
Book by the International Organization for Migration (IOM), 2005. Accessed on August 4, 2016.
To read more, click here (PDF; Size: 1.52 MB)
This volume combines the background papers for the Regional Conference on Migration and Development in Asia, held in Lanzhou, China in 2005. The focus of the papers is on the contribution of internal migrants to local and national development, including poverty reduction, and how this can be complemented by strategies to reduce the risks of migration for poor people.
Keywords: internal migration, development, poverty

Migration Diversity in Brazil: Where are the Poor People?
Paper by Denise Helena França Marques and André Braz Golgher; ABEP Associação Brasileira de Estudos Populacionais, ABEP, Brazil, 2005
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This paper analyses the urban/urban, rural/urban, urban/rural and rural/rural flows of migrants within and between states in Brazil.
Keywords: rural to urban, urban to rural, poverty, labour, scheduled tribes

Migration, Gender and Right to the City: The Indian Context
Article by R B Bhagat; Economic & Political Weekly, 2017. Accessed on August 31, 2017
To read more, click here (PDF; 124 kB)
This article evaluates women’s migration to urban areas, identifies exclusionary processes against migrants in cities, and suggests strategies for implementing the “right to the city” perspective.
Keywords: exclusion, gender, right to the city, India

Migration Health Research
to advance evidence based policy and practice in Sri Lanka
Report by International Organization for Migration (IOM), 2017. Accessed on October 26, 2017.
To read more, click here (PDF; 8 MB)
This volume profiles the development of the National Migration Health Policy and intervention framework in Sri Lanka. 
Keywords: Sri Lanka, health, policy

Migration, Human Rights and Governance. Handbook for Parliamentarians N° 24
Report by Inter-Parliamentary Union, the International Labour Organization, and the United Nations (Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights), 2015. Accessed on November 13, 2015.
To read more click here (PDF; Size: 1.40 MB)
This handbook provides a step-by-step overview of the conditions, issues, tools and policy responses regarding international migration that parliamentarians need to understand to effectively carry out their responsibilities for ensuring the protection of the rights of migrants and the governance of international migration under the rule of law.
Keywords: international migration, refugees, migrant rights, migrant law, human rights

Migration in National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs)
Briefing paper by Migrating out of Poverty Research Programme Consortium, 2012. Accessed on September 14, 2015
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This paper investigates the ways in which the National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) created by Least Developed Countries (LDCs), refer to migration and incorporate related phenomena.
Keywords: National adaptation programmes, migration, national policies, developing countries

Migration in the Slums of Kolkata: A Gendered Perspective
Journal article by Arpita Banerjee, 2014. Accessed on October 9, 2015.
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This article discusses the background profile of migrants and gives an account of gendered division of the migrants’ labour market participation, types of work and related issues, focusing on a sampled from a slum in Kolkata.
Keywords: Women, gender, migration, labour market, mobility, Kolkata, social networks, slums

Migration Matters in South Asia: Commonalities and Critiques
Article by Sanjay Barbora, Susan Thieme, Karin Astrid Siegmann, Vineetha Menon, Ganesh Gurung; Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. , Issue No., June 14, EPW Foundation, 2008
To read more, click here
This article identifies commonalities such as the significant macroeconomic role of migration and similar main destinations for south Asia’s mobile populations. It critiques popular themes in the discourse on migration, like the focus on economic benefits of moving populations and the nation state as a reference point.
Keywords: distress, rural to urban, informal work

Migration Profile – Sri Lanka
Report by Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka, 2013; Ministry of Foreign Employment Promotion and Welfare. Accessed on November 4, 2016.
To read more, click here (PDF; 10.5 MB)
This report is the first effort to provide data on foreign employment from Sri Lanka. It analyzes and presents the overall migration situation in the country.
Keywords: Sri Lanka, labour migration, international migration, data

Migration, Remittances, and Changing Patterns of Livelihood: Evidence from Western Odisha Villages
Working Paper by Arup Mitra and Basanta K Pradhan, 2016; Institute of Economic Growth. Accessed on November 4, 2016.
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This paper makes attempts to identify the possible factors which cause migration and to assess whether migration leads to a sizeable amount of remittances, causing improvements in the level of living of the households at the place of origin.
Keywords: India, Odisha, Remittances, labour migration

Migration, Remote Rural Areas and Chronic Poverty in India
Working paper by Priya Deshingkar; ODI Working Paper 323, CPRC Working Paper 163, December, ODI, Sussex, 2010 accessed on December 17, 2013
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This paper explores the relationship between migration, remote rural areas (RRAs) and chronic poverty in India and is part of a series on spatial poverty traps. It argues that migration is higher among chronically poor groups living in RRAs and that it plays an important role in managing risk and improving standards of living and household wellbeing.
Keywords: rural to urban, poverty, labour

Migration Study Report of Gaisilat Block of Bargarh District of Odisha
Journal article by Kanhu Charan Majhi, Abhaya Chandra Tripathi, Jadumani Pradhan, 2014. Accessed on October 9, 2015.
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Based on a survey of households in the Gaisilat block of the district, this paper discusses the nature of temporary migration from the Bargarh district of Odisha.
Keywords: Odisha, seasonal migration, temporary migration, poverty, rural development

‘Mind the Gap!’ Integrating Approaches to Internal and International Migration
Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies
Journal Article by Russell King and Ronald Skeldon, 2010. Accessed on January 10, 2015.
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This paper examines existing literature under different theoretical approach, in order to integrate the study fields of internal and international migration.
Keywords: internal migration, international migration, migration theory, systems approach, integration, development.

Mobilities and Spaces: Gendered Dimension of Migration in Urban India
Book chapter by Arpita Banerjee, 2011; Routledge. Accessed on June 7, 2016.
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This chapter analyses the 55th round data of the National Sample Survey (NSS) to explore the changes in the economic and socio-demographic attributes of migrant women accorded by a movement into urban spaces.
Keywords: gender, internal migration, labour migration

Monitoring the rights of vulnerable migrant children: With trafficking point of view
Report by the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR), India, 2012. Accessed on November 4, 2016.
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This report documents the outcomes of  NCPCR’s intervention in monitoring the rights of migrant children through field visits, complaints redressal and responding to various Court matters.
Keywords: trafficking, migrant children

MOSAICS-Monthly Newsletter of the United Nations University Institute on Globalization, culture and Mobility
Issue 26- June 2015
To read the newsletter click here.

National Consultation on Children and Internal Migration In India
Organised by Aide Et Action South Asia in partnership with UNESCO New Delhi ad Bernard Van Leer Foundation
22-23 September 2015, New Delhi
For background note; click here.

National Workshop on Internal Migration and Human Development in India, 6-7 December 2011, Workshop Compendium, Vol. 1
Workshop Report by UNESCO and UNICEF, 2012 accessed on October 2, 2013
To read more, click here (PDF; Size: 1,280 KB)
The Workshop report is a summary of key discussions and presentations made at the National Workshop on Internal Migration and Human Development in India, 6-7 December 2011
Keywords: rural to urban, development

National Workshop on Internal Migration and Human Development in India, 6-7 December 2011, Workshop Compendium, Vol. 2
Workshop Papers by UNESCO and UNICEF, 2012 accessed on October 2, 2013
To read more, click here (PDF; Size: 3,203 KB)
The workshop compendium includes papers presented at the National Workshop on Internal Migration and Human Development in India, 6-7 December 2011
Keywords: poverty, culture, rural to urban, development

National Workshop on Migration and Global Environmental Change In India, 4-5 March 2012.
Summary Report
To read more click here.

New Delhi Scoping Study – Safe Cities Free of Violence against Women and Girls Global Programme
Report by UN Women, India, 2011. Accessed on November 10, 2013.
To read more, click here (PDF; Size: 3,830 KB)
UN Women launched a flagship initiative: the Safe Cities Free of Violence against Women and Girls Global Program (SC GP). Reflective of the goal to develop and test a safe city model, this report is based on the impact evaluation that was carried out in New Delhi.
Keywords: urbanisation, gender

New Era in India-Gulf Labour Migration
Article by S.K. Sasikumar and Philip Martin, 2017. Labour & Development. Accessed on 25 October 2017.
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This article discusses the emerging demographic, labour market, and economic situation in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, and analyses its impact on the recruitment landscape and migrant workers.
Keywords: labour migration, international migration, West Asia

Other Disadvantaged Workers: Migrants, Child and Bonded Labourers
Report on Conditions of Work and Promotion of Livelihoods in the Unorganised Sector.
Report by National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganised Sector, 2007. Accessed on October 20, 2015.
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This chapter analyses the conditions of work and issues in livelihood promotion for labour migrants, working children and bounded labourers, along with a set of recommendations for the unorganised sector.
Keywords: migrant workers, child labour, bounded labour

Overview of Internal Migration in India
Policy Brief; For a Better Inclusion of Internal Migrants in India by UNESCO and UNICEF, 2012. Accessed on October 2, 2013.
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Migration of persons within national borders is far greater in magnitude than migration across international borders and has enormous potential to contribute to economic prosperity, social cohesion and urban diversity. This policy brief looks at the key challenges, available data and policy recommendations on internal migration in India.
Keywords: rural to urban, policy effects, urbanisation

Participation of Women in the Urban Labour Force and Rural Urban Migration in India
Working paper by Myra Marx Ferree and Josef Gugler; Michigan State University, Working Paper No. 46, February, Michigan State University, 1984 accessed on December 17, 2013
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Using data on the 148 major cities of India in 1971, the authors examine factors which contribute to greater female labour force participation in urban areas and the role which opportunities for labour force participation play in bringing women to the city.
Keywords: gender, poverty, data, informal work, mobility

Policies to Safeguard Migrants’ Rights: A Critical Approach (Urban India)
Journal article by Debolina Kundu, 2014. Accessed on October 9, 2015.
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This article discusses the basic principles of the Indian labour laws and court cases, which have major repercussions on the living and working conditions of migrant workers.
Keywords: Labour policy, migration, legislation, Inter State Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act 1979, India

Political Inclusion of Seasonal Migrant Workers in India: Perceptions, Realities and Challenges
Working paper by Aajeevika Bureau, 2012. Accessed on October 21, 2015.
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This study observes the participation of migrant workers in political processes – both through the institutionalized electoral process and through other lesser known avenues of asserting political agency.
Keywords: political inclusion, seasonal migration, migrant workers, internal migration, India

Politics and Economics of Urban Growth
Article by Amitabh Kundu; Economic and Political Weekly Vol. 44, No. 20, May, EPW Foundation, 2011
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The paper shows that contrary to popular perceptions about a rapid pace of urbanisation, the fragmentary data in the provisional results of the 2011 Census reveal a decline in demographic growth in districts within the metro cities, suggesting that these have become less welcoming to prospective migrants. Such low and even negative population growth in large cities and their core areas needs further investigation, since it raises concerns about exclusionary urbanisation.
Keywords: urbanisation, poverty, rural to urban

Population Distribution, Urbanization, Internal Migration and Development: An International Perspective
Report by UNDESA Population Division, United Nations, New York, 2011 accessed on October 22, 2013
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This report is based on the proceedings of the Expert Group Meeting on Population Distribution, Urbanization, Internal Migration and Development, which took place from 21 to 23 January of 2008 at the United Nations Headquarters in New York. Recent research on trends and challenges of urban growth, internal migration, and population distribution, the linkages and disparities between urban and rural development, the challenges of climate change for the spatial distribution of the population, social aspects of urbanization, including its impacts on health, and aspects of urban planning and urban governance were discussed.
Keywords: rural to urban, climate change, urbanisation

Poverty, Gender and Migration
Book by Sadhna Arya and Anupama Roy (eds) Sage, India, 2006
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This volume studies the new migratory flows among Asian women, focusing particularly on poverty and the attendant issues of powerlessness that mediate women’s migration.
Keywords: poverty, gender, labour, rural to urban

Poverty, Inequality and Mobility in Palanpur: Some Preliminary Results
Paper by Himanshu, Ishan Bakshi and Camille Dufour; LSE Asia Research Paper No. 45, September, London School of Economics, Asia Research Papers, 2011
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One of the important objectives of the Palanpur Survey has been to track the evolution of various aspects of well being of households in the village over time. A central focus has been income which is inextricably linked to the way agriculture has been organised in the village. At the same time, it must be recognised that agriculture now plays a less important role in the village economy than in the years of the previous surveys. The expansion of outside jobs and migration has brought both a diversification of employment and income sources and a decline in the contribution of agriculture in shaping household income: the shift from farm incomes being a majority share of total income in 1983 to a minority share in 2008-09 represents a fundamental change.
Keywords: poverty, culture, higher wages

Precarious Labour: Bangladeshi construction workers in Singapore
Policy brief by Asia Research Institute, 2015. Accessed on September 30, 2015
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This briefing paper examines key issues, challenges and vulnerabilities of migrant construction workers and provides policy recommendations to reduce the costs of migration and increase levels of protection.
Keywords: national policy, labour migration, international migration, Bangladesh, Singapore, social protection, construction workers

Preliminary Evidence on Internal Migration, Remittances, and Teen Schooling in India
Discussion paper by Valerie Mueller and Abusaleh Shariff; IFPRI Discussion Paper 858, April, Internal Food Policy Research Institute, IFPRI, 2009
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Migration can serve as an outlet for employment, higher earnings, and reduced income risk for households in developing countries. The 2004–2005 Human Development Profile of India survey is used to examine correlations between the receipt of remittances from internal migrants and human capital investment in rural areas.
Keywords: labour, remittances, development, youth, data

Promoting international cooperation and partnerships in addressing labour migration between Asia and the Gulf Cooperation Council countries
Working paper by International Labour Organization (ILO), 2015. Accessed on October 8, 2015
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This paper examines the different collaborations among the many stakeholders involved in international labour migration and the forms of cooperation that have been implemented in Asia and the Gulf Cooperation Council countries.
Keywords: Labour migration, international migration, Asia, Gulf Cooperation Council

Promoting the Health of Left-Behind Children of Asian Labour Migrants: Evidence for Policy and Action
Report by Kolitha Wickramage, Chesmal Siriwardhana and Sharika Peiris, 2015. Accessed on October 20, 2015.
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This paper explores empirical evidence on the mental health and nutritional impacts of international labour migration on the left-behind children of migrant workers in Asia (Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam).
Keywords: migrant workers, child labour, bounded labour, Asia, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam

Putting Money in Motion: How Much Do Migrants Pay for Domestic Transfers
A CMF Policy Memo; Volume 6; January 2011
Article by CMF Researchers Shreyas Gopinath, Justin Oliver, Ajay Tannirkulam
To read more  click  here

Realizing a Fair Migration Agenda: Labour flows between Asia and Arab States – Background Paper For discussion at ILO interregional experts’ meeting (3-4 December 2014, Kathmandu)
Working paper by International Labour Organization (ILO), 2014. Accessed on October 8, 2015
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This paper deepens the understanding on the key challenges and opportunities for realizing a fair migration agenda between Asia and the GCC States.
Keywords: Labour migration, Arab states, Asia, Gulf Cooperation Council

Realizing  the Inclusion of Migrants and Migration in the Post -2015 United Nations Development Agenda
Discussion paper by Global Migration Group (GMG), 2015. Accessed on October 21, 2015.
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This paper discusses the theme of migration and related issues in the context of the new UN Sustainable Development Agenda 2030, and its specific Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
Keywords: Sustainable development, migration

Reaping the economic and social benefits of labour mobility: ASEAN 2015
Working paper by International Labour Organization (ILO), 2014. Accessed on October 8, 2015
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This paper reviews the trends of labour mobility in ASEAN and other regions, the economic rational, the major driving forces and the strategies for managing labour mobility, and the implications of the AEC for protecting migrant workers.
Keywords: Labour market, migrant workers, social security, economic integration, protection, worker rights, Asia, Japan

Regional Inter-State Consultation Mechanisms on Migration: Approaches, Recent Activities and Implications for Global Governance of Migration
Report by International Organization for Migration (IOM), 2013. Accessed on October 20, 2015.
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This paper reviews 25 inter-state consultative mechanisms on migration, including 18 regional consultative process (RCP) on migration and seven others, here termed interregional forums on migration (IRF) that appear to depart from the classic RCP model in some meaningful way.
Keywords: migration, policy, consultation, governance

Remittances In India:Facts and Issues
Working Paper no 331; Economics and Social Sciences Area; Indian Institute Of Management Bangalore, 2011
Paper by Chinmay Tumbe
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Remittance Needs and Opportunities In India
Synthesis Report June 2011
Report by Dr. YSP Thorat; Dr. Howard Jones
To read more click here

Remittance Needs in India
NABARD-GTZ Technical Study; August 2009
By Dr. YSP Thorat, NV Ramana, RV Ramakrishna, Anna Koshy, Therese Zak
To read more click here

Report of the National Consultation on Empowering Women Migrant Workers,
Report by UNWOMEN, August 20, 2010 accessed on September 3, 2013
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With India entering for the first time into the third phase of the programme named, “Empowering Women Migrant Workers in South Asia (EWMWA), it is appropriately timed and significant to hold a National consultation and receive strategic inputs from key stakeholders. This document is the report of the National Consultation on “Empowering Women Migrant Workers” 20th August 2010, New Delhi.
Keywords: gender, marriage migration, culture, poverty

Return of Diasporas: India’s Growth Story vs. Global Crisis
India Migration Report 2014: Diaspora and Development
Final report by S. Irudaya Rajan, V. Kurusu and Saramma Panicker, C.K (CDS), 2013. Accessed on September 17, 2015
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This paper provides information about return migration to India as a consequence of the global economic crisis, and in comparison to previous trends.
Keywords: Diaspora, international migration, return migration, economic crisis, education

Role of Gram Panchayats in Supporting Migrant Workers – Experiences
Consolidated Reply by Decentralization Community and Work and Employment Community, UN Solution Exchange, 2012 accessed on December 17, 2013
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Keywords: portability of rights, policy effects

Rural–Urban Migration and Child Survival in Urban Bangladesh: Are the Urban Migrants and Poor Disadvantaged?
Paper by M. Mazharul Islam and Kazi Md Abul Kalam Azad, 2007. Cambridge University Press. Accessed on 25 October 2016.
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This paper analyses the levels and trends of childhood mortality in urban Bangladesh, and examines whether children’s survival chances are poorer among the urban migrants and urban poor.
Keywords: rural-urban, Bangladesh, health, children

Rural-Urban Migration and Social Mobility in Third World Metropolises: A Cross-National Study
Article by Hagen Koo; The Sociological Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 2., Spring, Wiley-Blackwell, 1978
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Two implicit models have provided the major frameworks for rural-urban migration research in developing societies: one model, the underprivilege model, predicts that rural migrants enter the bottom rungs of the urban occupational structure and suffer inequality in status attainment in the city; the other model, the push up model, suggests that the influx of rural migrants provides a structural impetus to upward social mobility for the urban natives. This study synthesizes relevant findings from several major Asian and Latin American metropolises and thereby provides a cross-national test of the two models. The paper rejects both models and explicates structural reasons why the models do not hold true in Third World cities.
Keywords: rural to urban, mobility, development

Segmentation, Network Multipliers and Spillovers: A Theory of Rural Urban Migration for a Traditional Economy
Working paper by Vegard Iversen; Development Research Centre on Migration, Globalisation and Poverty, Working Paper T9, March, 2006 accessed on December 17, 2013
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Economic theories portray wage differences and income-diversification as key determinants of rural-urban migration in developing countries. This paper develops a dynamic theory where economic and social variables work in tandem to shape and accelerate such movement. While existing theories portray migration as a single flow, the new theory highlights spillovers between and contrasts in how social networks and interactions impact on two separate, yet interconnected flows of rural urban migrants.
Keywords: rural to urban, migrant networks, culture, source destination linkages

Social Inclusion of Internal Migrants In India
Report; Internal Migration in India Initiative, June 2013 accessed on December 17, 2013
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Provides an overview of existing innovative practices that increase the inclusion of internal migrants in society and act as a living document that would inspire and assist professionals and governments officials in their attempts to facilitate the social inclusion of migrants.
Keywords: rural to urban, policy effects, urbanisation, better working conditions

Social Protection by and for Temporary Work Migrants and their Households in Northwest Bangladesh
Report by Md. Azmal Kabir, Nazmun Nahar Lipi, Sadia Afrin and Janet Seeley; Migration, Globalization and Poverty, 2008. Accessed on 25 October 2016.
To read more, click here (PDF; 3.14 MB)
This report  examines the forms of social protection provided by the state, non-governmental organisations, kin and community which may provide support to temporary/seasonal migrants and those left behind in the sending community. In addition, attention is paid to the ways in which state and civil society structures and policies may increase the vulnerability of migrants and their families.
Keywords: social protection, seasonal migration, temporary migration, Bangladesh

Social Security for Migrant Workers: A rights-based approach
Published by Kenichi Hirose, Miloš Nikacˇ & Edward Tamagno; International Labour Organisation, 2011 accessed on September 23, 2013
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This publication is intended to serve as a comprehensive guide for the international coordination of social security, covering both basic principles and practical aspects. This publication is closely related to a series of training modules published by the ILO in 2010 dealing with the coordination of social security.
Keywords: poverty, portability of rights, pension and insurance

Society and Circulation: Mobile People and Itinerant Cultures in South Asia
Book by Claude Markovits, Jacques Pouchepadass and Sanjay Subrahmanyam, Permanent Black, New Delhi, 2003
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This volume uses the idea of ‘circulation’ in relation to South Asia in the colonial period. It comprises a set of complementary essays which deal with merchant circulation, pilgrimages, cartography, policing, labour mobility and the movement of itinerant groups from colonial administrators to wandering bards, demonstrating that the South Asia of this period was made and remade by changing patterns and the logic of circulation.
Keywords: circular, culture, labour

Socio-economic Conditions of Migrant Female Teachers in Pune City
Article by Justina Jose, Environment and Urbanization Asia, 8(1), p. 137-149, National Institute of Urban Affairs (NIUA), SAGE Publications, 2017. Accessed on May 17, 2017.
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This study has attempted to analyze the socio-economic conditions of a small section of the migrant middle class: female teachers in Pune city.
Keywords: Socio-economic conditions, migrants, middle class, women, teachers

Socioeconomic Determinants of Temporary Labour Migration in India
Article by Kunal Keshri and R. B. Bhagat; Asian Population Studies, Volume 9, Issue 2, June, Routledge, 2013
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This paper studies the basic differentials between temporary and permanent labour migration at the national level and examines the socioeconomic determinants of temporary labour migration at the state level. The study shows that temporary migration is seven times larger than permanent migration, and is largely a rural phenomenon dominated by rural to urban migration.
Keywords: short term, education, poverty, scheduled castes

Spotlight cases
Global estimates 2015. People displaced by disasters, pp. 53-72
Report by Internal Displacement Monitoring Center (IDMC), 2015. Accessed on September 21, 2015
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This report describes eight major cases of protracted, disaster-induced displacement of 2015, including Indonesia, Bangladesh and Pakistan, among others.
Keywords: Disaster-induced displacement, protracted displacement, natural disasters, Indonesia, Bangladesh and Pakistan

Status report on school participation and availing of health and nutrition services for children of migrant labourers
Report by the Centre for Media Studies (CMS), New Delhi, 2015. Accessed on November 4, 2016.
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This report assesses the initiatives made by six high in-migration states in India in the back drop of the Supreme Court’s directives on inclusion of families and particularly children of migrant labourers under Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) as well as other acts such as Right to Education (RTE) Act and Inter State Migrant Workmen Act.
Keywords: migrant children, education, schooling, health

“Stockholm Agenda” on migrant and migration-related goals and targets in post-2015 global and national development agenda
Report by Migration and Development Civil Society Network (MADE), 2014. Accessed on October 21, 2015.
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As a distinct outcome and follow up to the UN High Level Dialogue (HLD) on International Migration and Development 2013, civil society proposes to collaborate with States during the next five years on concrete projects and measurable progress on the following eight points; two points for each HLD roundtable theme on the agenda.
Keywords: sustainable development, migration, United Nations

Support for migrant workers: The missing link in India’s development
Published by Priya Deshingkar, Rajiv Khandelwal and John Farrington; Natural Resource Perspectives 117, September, ODI series, 2008 accessed on November 1, 2013
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Rejecting policies to ‘keep them in rural areas’ as unrealistic, this paper identifies the kinds of migrant support that are needed if migrants are to continue adding to economic growth as they currently do, but at lower personal cost than at present.
Keywords: rural to urban, policy effects, urbanisation

Structural Conditions and Agency in Migrant Decision-Making: A Case of Domestic and Construction Workers from Java, Indonesia
Working paper by Khoo Choon Yen, Maria Platt, Brenda S.A. Yeoh and Theodora Lam, 2015. Accessed on September 14, 2015
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This paper examines the migration drivers into the two low-paid and insecure occupations of domestic work and construction work from rural areas in Indonesia.
Keywords: labour migration, domestic work, rural-urban migration, internal migration, Indonesia, decision-making, construction work, employment

Sustainable Migration in the Context of Development
Report of a high-level UNESCO and EU meeting convened in Brussels on 29 November 2016, Accessed on February 20, 2017
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The high-level meeting reported on was proposed as an initiative of the Slovak Presidency of the EU Council, in collaboration with UNESCO’s intergovernmental science programme on the Management of Social Transformations (MOST). Its purpose was to consider the nexus between migration and development from the perspective of research in the social and human sciences in order to enhance the knowledge base available for policy design and implementation at EU level.
Keywords: development, sustainable migration

Switched On: Youth at the Heart of Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific
Report by the Regional Coordination Mechanism- United Nations Development Group Asia- Pacific Thematic Working Group on Youth
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This report focuses on the Asia- Pacific and presents data from South Asia including India, Sri-Lanka and Bangladesh, among others 
Keywords: youth, Asia, South Asia, development

Systematic review of various interventions and approaches used for enhancing poverty reduction and development of ‘within country migration’
Report by Babu MS, Gopalaswamy AK, Baskar V, Dash U, 2016, Protocol. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University College London. Accessed on November 4, 2016.
To read more, click here (PDF; Size: 1.08 MB)
Keywords: internal migration, review

Temporary and Seasonal Migration: Regional Pattern, Characteristics and Associated Factors
Article by Kunal Keshri and R. B. Bhagat; Economic and Political Weekly Vol. 47, No. 4, January, EPW Foundation, 2012
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This paper highlights the regional pattern of temporary and seasonal labour migration in India in light of data from the 64th round of the National Sample Survey. This paper also examines the association between temporary migration and its determining factors, particularly economic status, landholding and educational levels.
Keywords: seasonal, distress, education, labour, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes

The 5-year Action Plan for Collaboration
Policy brief by Migration and Development Civil Society Network (MADE), 2013. Accessed on October 21, 2015.
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Civil Society’s proposal for an outcome and follow up to the UN High Level Dialogue on International Migration and Development 2013.
Keywords: international migration, development, United Nations

The Big Three: China, India and the Philippines
Global estimates 2015. People displaced by disasters, pp. 36-40
Report by Internal Displacement Monitoring Center (IDMC), 2015. Accessed on September 21, 2015
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This report describes natural events occurred in China, India and the Philippines in 2015, considered among the biggest causes of disaster-induced displacement worldwide in that year.
Keywords: disaster-induced displacement, natural disasters, China, India, Philippines

The Effect of Low-Skilled Labour Migration on the Host Economy
Working paper by Uri Dadush, 2014. Accessed on October 8, 2015.
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This paper presents the mismatch between the perceived harm that low-skilled migration does on the destination area, especially for low-skilled local workers, and the actual benefits that it brings to the host economies.
Keywords: Low skilled migration, benefit, impact, wage, employment, fiscal effects, host economies, perception

The Effect of Male Migration on Employment Patterns of Women in Nepal
Research Paper by Michael Lokshin and Elena Glinskaya, 2009. World Bank Economic Review . Accessed on 19 October 2016.
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This article examines the extent to which male migration affects the labor force participation of prime-age women in migrant-sending households in Nepal, using nationally representative household survey data. The results indicate that male migration has a negative impact on the level of the labor market participation by women in the migrant-sending household.
Keywords: gender, labour force participation, international migration, remittances, Nepal

The Evolving Picture of Displacement in the Wake of Typhoon Haiyan. An Evidence-Based Overview
Report by Internal Displacement Monitoring Center (IDMC), Government of the Philippines, Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) and IOM, 2014. Accessed on September 21, 2015
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This report draws together information from selected government and humanitarian sources to provide an overall understanding of displacement patterns and trends, and of related needs and issues faced by displaced persons in all geographical areas and settings affected by the typhoon Haiyan of 2013.
Keywords: displacement, natural disaster, typhoon Haiyan

The Evolution of Migration Policy in Post-Apartheid South Africa: Emerging Themes and New Challenges
Report by Scalabrini Institute of Human Mobility in Africa 2016; Accessed on February 29, 2016
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Builds a picture of Post-Apartheid South Africa, where migration policies and legislation have failed to enhance development.
Keywords: immigration, migration, South Africa, legislation, development.

The Household Level Determinants in the Choice and Level of Migration: A Micro Study in West Bengal
Article by Debasis Chakraborty, Pravat Kumar Kuri, Environment and Urbanization Asia, 8(1), p. 94-104, National Institute of Urban Affairs (NIUA), SAGE Publications, 2017. Accessed on May 17, 2017.
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This study is an endeavour to conceptualize 
the determinants of choice and level of migration in household migration decision making.
Keywords: Migration decision, single location, multiple locations

The Labour of Love: Seasonal Migration from Jharkhand to the Brick Kilns of Other States in India
Article by Alpa Shah; Contributions to Indian Sociology, /vol 40, No. 1, March, Sage, 2006
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This article draws on a fieldwork in a village in Jharkhand and a brick kiln in West Bengal to argue that migrants do not understand their movement in economic terms alone. Many see the brick kilns as a temporary space of freedom to escape problems back home, explore a new country, gain independence from parents or live out prohibited amorous relationships. It is suggested that Jharkhandi activists and policy-makers’ construction of such migration as a ‘problem’ is as much about their vision of how the new tribal state ought to be as about exploitation.
Keywords: informal work, inter state, development, culture

The Largest Mass Displacement Events of 2012
Global Estimates 2012. People displaced by disasters, pp. 15-23
Final report by Internal Displacement Monitoring Center (IDMC), 2013. Accessed on September 21, 2015
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This report describes the effects of five major climatic disasters occurred in 2012, four of which occurred in Asia, each one forcing  between 6 and 15 million people to leave their homes. [Paper adapted from original].
Keywords: natural hazard, internal displacement, floods, monsoon, climate, South-east Asia, China, India, Pakistan.

The Mediterranean Migration Crisis. Why People Flee, What the EU Should Do.
Report by Human Rights Watch (HRW), 2015, Accessed on September 21, 2015
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The report draws on Human Rights Watch’s extensive work on the human rights situation in the four main sending countries as well as interviews with Syrians, Eritreans, Afghans, and Somalis who crossed the Mediterranean in May 2015.
Keywords: human rights, international migration, Mediterranean, migration crisis, asylum seekers

The Millennium Development Goals and Migration
Paper by Erica Usher; IOM Migration Research Series, No. 20, April, IOM, 2005
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While migration cuts across all or most MDGs, there are stronger links with some goals than with others. This paper looks briefly at the interlinkages between migra- tion and the MDGs, in particular Goal 1 (Poverty Reduction), Goal 3 (Gender Equal- ity), Goal 6 (Prevention of HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other Infectious Diseases), Goal 7 (Environmental Sustainability), and Goal 8 (Creation of Global Partnerships for Development).
Keywords: international reports, poverty, climate change, development

The Millions Who Cannot Vote
News article by P. Sainath; The Hindu, May 15, 2004
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This article highlights the lack of voting right to migrant workers who cannot go back home to exercise their citizenship rights during elections
Keywords: citizenship, portability of rights

The Poverty and Vulnerability of Migrant Workers in India: A Post-Earthquake Study in the State of Gujarat
by D. Mahadevia; Ajeevika Bureau, November, 2002
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This study shows that low-income labour migrants in India, often compelled to migrate out of lack of other alternatives, form the most marginalized stratum of the society and require special attention regarding policy and programming. The study reveals that this population segment tends to be excluded from relief and rehabilitation measures provided by the Government and NGOs, during and in the wake of disasters. The main reasons are the lack of information about the presence of the migrants, failure to acknowledge them and the lack of proper identity and registration mechanisms.
Keywords: distress, forced migration, policy effects

The Risk of Disaster-Induced Displacement in South Asia.
Technical paper by Internal Displacement Monitoring Center (IDMC), 2015. Accessed on September 21, 2015
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This technical paper represents an initial attempt to assess the risk of disaster-induced displacement in eight countries in South Asia – Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka
Keywords: climate change, disaster, disaster-induced displacement, South Asia

The Risk of Disaster-Induced Displacement in South-East Asia and China
Technical paper by Internal Displacement Monitoring Center (IDMC), 2014. Accessed on September 21, 2015
To read more, click here (PDF; Size: 1.35 MB)
This technical paper represents an initial attempt to assess the risk of disaster-induced displacement in the ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) – Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam – plus China.
Keywords: climate change, disaster, displacement, South-East Asia, China

The Role of Family Decision in Internal Migration: The Case of India
Article by Bharati Bhattacharyya; Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 18, No. 1, May – June, Elselvier, 1985
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This paper has constructed a model of family migration which explains the rural-urban migration phenomena observed in developing countries more consistently than the existing analyses of migration. This framework determines the differences between the forces that affect family decisions and individual migration decisions. Data from India have been used to suggest a method for empirical investigation of the incidence of family migration decisions.
Keywords: rural to urban, urbanisation, culture, poverty

The Socio-economic Status of Migrant Construction Workers in Bangalore and Intervention Plan to Improve Their Livelihoods
Journal article by Smita Premchander, V. Prameela, Shammeem Banu, K.G. Meenakshi, Hosalli Manjunath, T. Prema, Sampark (Bangalore), 2014. Accessed on October 9, 2015.
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This study looks at the situation of migrant construction workers in Bangalore with a view to help design programmes and policies for them.
Keywords: Migration, working conditions, Bangalore, unorganized sector, construction workers

The “Tipping Point” in Indian Agriculture: Understanding the Withdrawal of Indian Rural Youth Report by Amrita Sharma and Anik Bhaduri; International Water Management Institute (IWMI), 2012 accessed on December 17, 2013
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Recent trends suggest that India might very well be at the “tipping point” of the transition in its agriculture dependent population. A large proportion of youth in the countryside is on their way out of agriculture. Rising disenchantment with the profession pushes them out of agriculture while opportunities in other sectors of the booming economy pull them out of agriculture. This is suggested by this study which attempts to identify the drivers of this process of withdrawal and assess the odds of an average farmers’ move out of agriculture.
Keywords: youth, rural to urban, labour, informal work

Their Own Country: A Profile of Labour Migration from Rajasthan
Report by Aajeevika Bureau, 2014. Accessed on October 4, 2017.
To read more, click here (PDF; 11 MB)
This report is a comprehensive exploration of the Rajasthani migrant worker’s situation. It attempts to quantify the incidence of labour migration in the state and provides insights into the lived experience and vulnerability of the migrant worker in the national economy.
Keywords: labour migration, India, internal migration

Time for Equality: The Role of Social Protection in Reducing Inequalities in Asia and the Pacific
Paper by Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
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The publication explores the linkages between inequality and social protection; it argues that inequality, in its multiple forms, is on the rise in Asia and the Pacific, and is having an adverse impact on sustainable development.
Keywords: social protection, inequality

Transnational Migration and the Politics of Identity
Book by Meenakshi Thapan (ed.), Sage, India, 2006
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This volume focuses on Asian women`s experience of immigration and the impact this has on their identity in the context of transnational migration. It highlights the gendered dimension of migration, the differential experience of men and women, and the consequences of this for women.
Keywords: minorities, gender, long term, labour

Trends and Patterns of Internal Migration in India, 1971-2001
Paper by R.Lusome and R.B.Bhagat; Paper presented at the Annual Conference of Indian Association for the Study of Population (IASP), 7-9 June, Thiruvananthapuram, 2006
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This paper attempts to provide the trends and patterns of internal migration during 1971-2001 on the basis of census data for that period and shows that the composition of internal migration has changed over the years.
Keywords: inter state, poverty, development, data

Understanding Multiple Discrimination against Labour Migrants in Asia: An Intersectional Analysis
Paper by Sohoon Lee and Nicola Piper, 2013; Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. Accessed on August 29, 2016.
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This paper analyses labour migration with an intersectionality methodology to identify the multiplicity of discriminatory mechanisms and complex identities of female labour migrants in Asia.
Tags: gender, labour migration

Unravelling the Dynamics of Border Crossing and Rural-to-Rural-to-Urban Mobility in the Northeastern Thai-Lao Borderlands
Paper by Soimart Rungmanee, 2015; Population, Place and Space. Accessed on June 22, 2016.
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This paper examines the cross-border migration of Lao migrants to the borderlands of northeast Thailand, as well to other urban centres in Thailand. The author argues that the border proximity and the shared ethnic and linguistic backgrounds of the Lao and Thai people contributes to the blurring of the dichotomy between internal and international migration in the region.
Keywords: internal-international migration nexus, Laos, Thailand

Urban Migration Trends, Challenges and Opportunities in India
Background paper by Ram B. Bhagat, 2015, Accessed on  January 25, 2016
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This is a background paper for International Organization for Migration’s World Migration Report 2015.
Keywords: migration, urban, India

Urban Policies and the Right to the City: Rights, Responsibilities and Citizenship
Policy paper by Alison Brown and Annali Kristiansen; MOST-2 Policy Papers series, SHS/SRP/URB/2008/PI/H/3 REV, March, UN-HABITAT, 2009 accessed on December 17, 2013
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The policy paper outlines the tools through which the project seeks to forge consensus amongst key actors, in particular local authorities, on public policy and legislation that combines urban development with social equity and justice.
Keywords: urbanisation, higher wages, policy effects

Urbanization and Migration in Bangladesh
Report by United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), 2016. Accessed on November 4, 2016.
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This  report provides an analytical review, as well as policy recommendations on some of the key issues with regard to the Bangladesh’s migration-led urbanization.
Keywords: Bangladesh, internal migration, urbanization

Urbanization and Spatial Patterns of Internal Migration in India
Report by S. Chandrasekhar and A. Sharma, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, 2014. Accessed on December 1, 2015.
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This report presents the trends of urbanization and the related internal migration in India, including rural-to-urban migration, seasonal and return migration, in the last decade.
Keywords: internal migration, temporary migration, return migration, circular migration, labour

Urbanization, Demographic Transition and the Growth of Cities in India, 1870-2020
Paper by C. Tumbe, 2016; IGC International Centre Working Paper No.C-35205-INC-1. Accessed on November 23, 2016.
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This paper examines the nature of urbanization and urban growth in India since the late 19th century against the backdrop of the unfolding demographic transition.
Keywords: urbanization, demographic transition

Vulnerability of Migrants and Responsiveness of the State: The Case of Unskilled Migrant Workers in Kerala, India
Working paper by N. Ajith Kumar; CSES Working Paper No. 26, November, Centre for Socio-economic and Environmental Studies, 2011 accessed on December 17, 2013
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The paper examines how the state and other agencies in the host state (Kerala) responded to reduce the vulnerability of inter-state migrant workers. The paper also makes an assessment of a pioneering welfare scheme for inter-state migrant workers introduced by the Kerala government.
Keywords: inter state, better working conditions, pension and insurance

Well-Being of Migrant Workers: Perspectives from Daily Labour Markets in Navi Mumbai
Urban India January – June 2014
Journal article by Karthikeya Naraparaju, 2014. Accessed on October 9, 2015.
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This article documents the access of migrants to various aspects of integration into the city of Navi Mumbai such as housing, basic amenities, political representation, financial inclusion, and describes several aspects of the daily labour market such as wages, employment, and occupational hazards.
Keywords: Navi Mumbai, migrant labour, financial inclusion, representation, social security, occupational hazards, employment, wages, housing

Women in Indian Borderlands
Book by Paula Banerjee and Anasua Basu Ray Chaudhury (eds.),Sage, India, 2011
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This edited volume is an ethnographic compilation on the complex interrelationship between gender and political borders in South Asia. The book focuses on the border regions of West Bengal, Jammu and Kashmir and Northeast India.
Keywords: gender, conflict, scheduled tribes, source destination linkages

Women’s employment: Work in progress
Book by Pamela Philipose and Aditi Bishnoi (Eds.), 2013; Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung India Office. Accessed on November 4, 2016.
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This book maps the vast terrain of women’s employment in India through journalistic accounts from across the country.
Keywords: gender, labour migration

Women’s livelihood rights: recasting citizenship for development
Book by Sumi Krishna (ed.), Sage, India, 2007
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This interdisciplinary book looks at women`s natural resource-based livelihoods in the wider context of development viewed through the lens of citizenship rights.
Keywords: climate change, gender, citizenship rights

World Migration Report 2015. Migrants and Cities: New Partnerships to Manage Mobility
Report by International Organization for Migration (IOM), 2015. Accessed on December 1, 2015.
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This report explores how migration and migrants are shaping cities, and how the life of migrants in turn is shaped by cities, their people, organizations and rules.
Keywords: internal migration, international migration, urbanization, mobility

World Social Sciences Report 2016 – Challenging Inequalities: Pathways to a Just World
Report by ISSC, IDS and UNESCO, 2016; UNESCO Publishing, Paris. Accessed on November 4, 2016.
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Keywords: inequality

Young Migrant Construction Workers in the Unorganised Urban Sector
Article by Bikram K. Pattanaik; South Asia Research, Vol. 29, No. 1, February, Sage, 2009
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This article constitutes an empirical socio-economic analysis based on a field study involving 1200 young unorganised workers found in the construction sector of the so-called tri-city of Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali. The main aim of the study was to examine the reasons why and how these young people had come to work in this urban environment, how they live and spend their money and what they perceive as their major problems. Based on the findings, the article argues that Indian policy makers, with specific regard to the urban unorganised labour sector, should take more-adequate measures for the protection of human rights of such migrant workers.
Keywords: youth, rural to urban, labour, informal work

9th UNESCO Youth Forum on “Young Global Citizens for a Sustainable Planet”. On-line Youth Consultations on the Forum’s sub-themes.
Report prepared by the Youth and Sport Section, Division of Ethics, Youth and Sport, Social and Human Sciences (SHS) Sector, UNESCO’s Headquarter, 2015. Accessed on October 30, 2015
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This report presents a summary of the responses received to the online Youth Consultation in preparation of the UNESCO Youth Forum 2015. These results guided UNESCO in determining the substantive thematic focus of the Forum, under and within its two main thematic areas: Young Global Citizens in a Post-2015 World and Young Global Citizens Addressing Climate Change.
Keywords: UNESCO, consultation, Youth Forum, climate change, SDGs, sustainability